嘉定区人工流产多少钱央广认证
时间:2017年10月21日 22:05:00

Tighten your belt刚刚才发薪水,有人提议这个周末大家一起上馆子打打牙祭。我因为想要减肥,好穿新近买的一条短裙,推辞说: “No, I don#39;t think I can make it. I want to tighten my belt.”后来,Mary悄悄地问我:“如果你最近手头不方便的话, 我能帮你什么忙吗?”不会啊,不是早晨才发了薪水吗?我被她问得一头雾水,解释半天才弄明白。原来, “tighten my belt” 是指经济拮据,必须节衣缩食度日。例如: “The harvest was bad last year, we all had to tighten our belts.”  Whipping boy大家可能对 “scapegoat”的意思非常熟悉,但是对 “whipping boy ”可能并不熟悉,实际上二者的意思非常接近。Whipping boy 的比喻义就是“充当替罪羊的人或物,代人受过”。这个短语在实际中用途颇多。如:“ one #39;right#39; way to teach ing……To support phonics instruction and make the advocates of #39;whole language#39; the whipping boy does a disservice to our schools and teachers” (摘自1997年《时代周刊》);又如:“Building 31 also is not immune from the siege mentality that generally can mark Microsoft. #39;We#39;re very much a whipping boy in the academic community#39;”  With bells on周末准备开个Party,给朋友们发了请柬,收到的回信大都写着:“I would be there with bells on.” 这一句话弄的我不知道他们是来还是不来,是不是都要送我一个铃铛(bell)。With bells on 最普通的用法是用于非正式场合,意思是渴望做某事,准备玩个痛快(early; y to enjoy oneself)。如果请柬的回信上写着I#39;ll be there with bells on,那么回信的人不仅仅是期盼着某一场合(通常是聚会)的到来,同时还要为活动助兴,贡献自己的节目,让大家感到尽兴。With bells on的用法是非常有局限性的。多数情况下它的用法已经固定化、格式化,可以说已经成为社会礼仪用法的一部分,并被广泛应用于回复喜庆活动的邀请。使用这个短语意在向主人保被应邀人届时肯定会到场并确信活动会搞得气氛热烈。而且with bells on 前面也一定会加上一句“I will be there”或者“I would be there”。如果你是被邀请去看电影,那么千万别用being there with bells on做回复语;如果你收到哈佛大学的录取通知书,你也千万别回复他们“I will be there in September with bells on”, 否则,一切都要被你给搅浑了。当然了,这个句子并不是永远都是由七个单词组成。F. Scott Fitzgerald在他的作品Beautiful amp; Damned(1922)里使用这个句子时,就把短语最后面的介词给拿掉了。他在这样写到:“All-ll-ll righty. I#39;ll be there with bells”。人们大多认为这个短语的起源和喜庆活动中使用铃铛有关系(手指、脚指上挂满铃铛最能营造节日气氛)。也有人认为这和活跃气氛的小丑帽子上一个个像小铃铛一样的装饰品很有关系。  Sleep tight当我把三岁的女儿抱到床上,对她说:“Sleep tight”的时候,她却反问我:“妈妈,#39;Sleep tight#39;是什么意思?是不是我的被子得盖得严严(tight)的?”其实不然,sleep tight是指睡的好,睡的香。一位威斯彻斯特县(Westchester County)的导游曾介绍这个短语的来源,他说“Sleep tight”是指过去人们床板上的鬃绳,稻草的垫子就铺在纵横交错的鬃绳上,鬃绳起到弹簧的作用。这些鬃绳要定期的进行绷紧,睡着才舒,否则鬃绳则变的松松垮垮,很不舒。很多网站也都引用了这种说法。也有的说法说Sleep tight 的来历和海军有直接关系。因为海军用的吊床只有把绳子勒紧时才会睡得舒。按照牛津字典的解释,副词tightly在17世纪晚期的意思是soundly, properly或well.莎士比亚《温莎的风流娘儿们》(The Merry Wives of Windsor)有这样的句子“Hold Sirha, beare you these letters tightly.” 18世纪晚期tight有soundly(熟睡的), roundly(完全的)的意思。1898玛丽-阿奈特-冯-阿尼姆在她的《伊莉莎白和她的德国花园》(Elizabeth and Her German Garden)里写“She had been so tight asleep.”有一段民间儿童诗歌,其中tight的意思就是soundly.诗歌创作的具体时间无从考,不过诗歌最后两行明显透露着维多利亚时代的文风。Good night, sleep tight,Wake up brightIn the morning lightTo do what#39;s rightWith all your might.大多数美国儿童可能对下面这段形成于19世纪的儿歌更为熟悉:“Good night, sleep tight. Don#39;t let the bed bugs bite.”  ShoestringShoestring(鞋带),如果有人对你说: “I started my business on a shoestring”,你可别认为他是卖鞋带起家的。“To do business or to operate on a shoestring” 是说“用极少的本钱开始做生意”,所以上面那句话的意思是“我开始创业时只有极少的资金。”如果用“on a shoestring”来形容一个人的经济状况,那这个人的日子肯定过得“上顿不接下顿”(living hand to mouth) ,也就是说这个人离破产不远了。Shoestring(鞋带)为什么会有这些意思,是因为鞋带都很细而且不结实?我们现在很难确定shoestring成为“钱少得可怜”的代名词到底起源于何处。Christine Ammer 在《美国习语词典》(The American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms)提出了这样一种有趣的设想:在英国,被关进监狱的负债人,把两根鞋带接起来栓到一只鞋子上,把这只鞋子从窗口塞出去,悬挂在监狱的外墙上,希望籍此得到窗外偶尔路过的行人施舍的钱财。这种说法听起来很有创意,实际上不过是一则毫无根据的想象而已。认为鞋带本身细而不坚实的特征是使shoestring让人联想到“小额资金”的说法也许还比较有说力。鞋带的细长(slender shoestring)正好和资金的微薄(slender resources)在英语中是一个词。说了半天问题还是没有解决;为什么要选择“鞋带”作为“贫困”的象征?虽说找不到完全确定的,不过我们可以从19世纪后期美国人的著作当中寻得一些蛛丝马迹。我们知道,一副鞋带万一有一条坏了的话,另外一条可以保留下来捆绑点小东西什么的。作家们发现用“鞋带”来表达确确实实存在、作用和价值又非常有限的事物是再合适不过了。1859年7月份的《亚特兰大月刊》上有这样一句引语:“If, now, I had in my possession even an old shoestring that had ever been his, I would beg you to return it to him, and find out for me where I can go never to see him”又如:“Those who have all their lives been in the habit of depending upon sight for everything, from the study of philosophy and the Scriptures to the tying of a shoestring, cannot seem to understand that hearing and touch may with practice be made to serve nearly all purposes about as well, and some very much better” (摘自The Century收录的一篇写于1887年关于盲人教育的文章)。撇开shoestring起源的种种说法不说,自19世纪90年代早期,shoestring一出现就使人联想到“资金的匮乏”,尤其是指那些在非常小的赌金上下赌注的赌徒,他们被称为shoestring gamblers.《牛津英语词典》在1904年对这种用法专门做了一个词条,并收录了下面的例句:“ He……speculated #39;on a shoe-string#39;——an exceedingly slim margin”。从此以后,这个词条一直很有生命力。现在,on a shoestring 和shoestring应用的语言环境非常的宽松,如:“globetrotting(环球旅行)on a shoestring” ,广告中出现的“Adventures on a Shoestring” .在这些用法当中,shoestring的意思显然没有“赤贫、贫困”的意思,这里所说的shoestring是指量力而行的省钱的安排。 /201303/230338

Every year, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report takes stock of where the world stands on gender parity. The newest survey covers 136 economies, most of which have been included since the report’s first edition eight years ago. The report measures the gaps between women and men on education, health, economic participation and political empowerment. Countries are compared and ranked on gender gaps in these four areas and on an index of overall gender parity. 世界经济论坛(WEF)每年都会发布《全球性别差距报告》(Global Gender Gap Report),评估世界范围内的性别平等状况。最新的调查覆盖了136个经济体,其中大部分经济体从八年前首份报告发布起,就一直在覆盖范围内。报告评估了女性和男性在教育、健康、经济参与以及政治赋权方面的差距。各国根据这四个领域的性别差距获得排名,还分别获得一个综合性的性别平等指数。 The good news is that gender gaps, while still wide in many countries, are narrowing in most parts of the world. More than 80 per cent of the countries covered have improved. The gaps in education and health have nearly disappeared in many nations. The bad news is that large gaps in economic and political participation persist even in many developed nations. At the current pace of change, women will not approach full parity on these indicators for another 80 years. That is a huge squandered opportunity not only for several generations of women but for their families, their societies and the world. 好消息是,虽然在很多国家两性差距依然很大,但在世界大多数地区,这一差距正在缩小。接受调查的国家中,超过80%的国家成功缩小了性别差距。在很多国家,教育和健康方面的差距已接近消失。坏消息是,即使在很多发达国家,两性在经济和政治参与方面还存在很大差距。按照当前的变化速度,女性要到80年后才能在这些方面获得完全的平等。这不仅对几代女性来说是一个被浪费的巨大机遇,对于她们的家庭、社会以及整个世界来说都是如此。 To be sure, gender gaps vary enormously among nations. We find that the highest ranking country in the world – Iceland – has closed over 87 per cent of its overall gender gap. By contrast, the lowest ranking country – Yemen – has closed only 51 per cent of this gap. 应当指出的是,各国之间性别差距各不相同。我们发现,在排名最高的国家——冰岛,两性的整体差距已经弥合了87%。与此形成对比的是,在排名最低的也门,性别差距只缩小了51%。 Education is a success story for most of the world and progress is not limited to wealthy countries. Globally, we estimate that 93 per cent of the gender gap in schooling has now disappeared. In 12 countries, including Lesotho and the ed Arab Emirates, the literacy rate for women is actually higher than that for men. In 35 countries, girls are more likely than boys to be enrolled in primary education. In 68 countries, more girls than boys are enrolled in secondary education. At the university level, 69 countries have more women enrolled than men. 对于世界上大部分地区来说,两性差距在教育方面的改善比较显著,且进步不仅局限于富裕国家。全球来看,调查结果显示,在教育方面的两性差距已消失了93%。在莱索托和阿联酋等12个国家,女性识字率实际上还高于男性。35个国家的女孩接受小学教育的可能性要大于男孩。68个国家接受中学教育的女孩要多于男孩。在大学教育层面,69个国家中女生人数多于男生。 The gender gap on health is even smaller. There are some notable exceptions, of course. In China, India, Vietnam and Azerbaijan, for example, female-male birth ratios are still abnormally low. In other nations, such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, Botswana and Qatar, the healthy life expectancy of women is lower than that of men. But the global trend is in the opposite direction. We estimate that 96 per cent of the global gender gap in health has disappeared. 健康方面的性别差距则更小,当然也有一些明显的例外。比如在中国、印度、越南以及阿塞拜疆,女婴/男婴出生比仍低得反常。在其他国家,比如孟加拉国、巴基斯坦、茨瓦纳和卡塔尔,女性的平均健康期望寿命要低于男性。但全球趋势与之相反。调查显示,在健康方面,96%的全球性别差距已经消失。 This is dramatic progress, but it is only part of the story. The gender gaps in economic participation and political power remain much wider – even in many wealthy nations. These gaps also differ significantly among countries. Some of the highest female labour-participation rates are in Malawi, Mozambique and Burundi, where women make up a larger portion of the workforce than men. By contrast, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Syria have some of the world’s lowest female labour force participation rates. No country has reached parity on wages. While women hold more than 50 per cent of top management roles in the private and public sector in Jamaica and the Philippines, they make up less than 3 per cent of these positions in Pakistan and Yemen. In the US, women hold 43 per cent of these roles. 这是长足的进步,但还不是全貌。在经济参与和政治权力方面,两性差距依然很大,就连很多富裕国家也是如此。这些差距在不同国家也各有不同。女性参与工作比率最高的国家,包括马拉维、莫桑比克以及布隆迪,在这些国家中女性在劳动力队伍中所占比重高于男性。而巴基斯坦、沙特阿拉伯、阿尔及利亚以及叙利亚的女性参与工作比率为全球最低。没有一个国家实现了同工同酬。虽然牙买加和菲律宾的私人和公共部门顶级管理层中,女性占50%以上,但在巴基斯坦和也门这一比例不到3%。在美国,女性在这些岗位的比重为43%。 With rare exceptions, politics is an area where women fare poorly around the world. No country has reached parity on women in parliament except Rwanda, which is not covered in our report because we lacked other data. In Yemen and Qatar, there are no women in the equivalent of their parliamentary bodies. Norway has the highest share of ministerial posts held by women – 53 per cent – but 10 countries have no female ministers at all. No country has reached parity on the number of years with a female head of government. India ranks first on that indicator, whereas 65 per cent of countries have never had a female head of government over the past 50 years. 除了极少数例外,政治方面世界各地女性的地位都很低。除了卢旺达,没有哪个国家实现了女性在议会议席上的平等(因为缺乏其他数据,卢旺达并不包含在我们的报告中)。在也门和卡塔尔,议会中没有女性。挪威女性部长比例最高(53%),但有10个国家根本就没有女性部长级官员。没有哪个国家女性政府首脑的任期与男性实现平等。在这点上印度排名第一,而65%的国家在过去50年里根本就没有女性政府首脑。 Based on the changes we have tracked over much of the past decade, we estimate that the world will not reach full gender parity for another 80 years. And that projection may well be too optimistic, given that the countries that do not supply data on gender parity may well be those with the worst imbalances. 基于过去十年大部分时间里追踪到的变化,报告预测,世界要到80年后才能实现完全的性别平等。考虑到没有提供性别平等数据的国家可能就是性别最失衡的国家,这一预期可能过于乐观了。 There is nothing natural about the pace of change – it depends on the decisions of individuals, governments and businesses to prioritise long-term returns from gender equality over short-term convenience. So who is winning the race to equality? 变化的步伐并不是自然而然的,它取决于个人、政府以及公司更加注重性别平等所带来的长期回报,而不是短期便利。那么在性别平等的竞赛中谁是赢家呢? We find four distinct groups. The first group includes countries that have had an overall good performance since 2006 (above the median) and are moving ahead rapidly. This group includes Belgium, Switzerland, Lesotho, Luxembourg and Iceland. Iceland is not only aly the top-ranked country, but it also has had the fastest rate of progress over the past eight years in closing the gender gap. These countries have essentially closed their health and education gaps aly and they are moving ahead rapidly on integrating more women into the economy and politics. 我们发现被调查国家分成四个特征鲜明的类别。第一类包括2006年以来整体表现比较好(中等以上)、而且进步较快的国家。这一类包括比利时、瑞士、莱索托、卢森堡以及冰岛。冰岛不仅已经是排名最高的国家,也是过去八年中消除性别差距进步最快的国家。这些国家基本上消除了在健康和教育方面的差距,也在快速让更多女性融入经济和政治领域。 A second group includes countries that performed above the median in 2006 but have since stalled or even reversed their progress. These countries include El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Botswana, Tanzania and Moldova. In this group, the reversals stem mainly from losses to previous gains in political empowerment. 第二类包括2006年时表现中等以上、但自此之后就停滞甚至倒退的国家,包括萨尔瓦多、斯里兰卡、茨瓦纳、坦桑尼亚以及尔多瓦。倒退主要是因为此前在政治赋权方面取得的进展又丢失了。 The third group is composed of countries that were below the median in 2006 – and still are – but have made rapid progress since then. Cameroon, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Nicaragua fall in this category. In some of these countries, such as Saudi Arabia, women are a majority of university graduates but only a small minority of the labour force and an even smaller share of leadership positions. 第三类包括2006年时处于中等水平以下(现在仍是)、但自那以来进步较快的国家。这一类包括喀麦隆、沙特、厄瓜多尔、玻利维亚和尼加拉瓜。在其中一些国家,比如沙特,女性占大学毕业生的大多数,但只占劳动力的一小部分,在领导层中的比例就更低。 Finally, a fourth group includes countries that were below the median in 2006 and are falling further behind. This group includes Albania, Mali, Algeria, Kuwait and Zambia. In most of these countries, basics such as education still need improvement. In others, such as Kuwait, the gender gap in economic participation has actually increased, despite a decline in the gender gap in education. 最后就是第四个类别,包括2006年时处于中等以下水平,并且仍在后退的国家。这类国家包括阿尔巴尼亚、马里、阿尔及利亚、科威特以及赞比亚。在其中大多数国家,教育等基础层面依然需要改善。诸如科威特等其他国家在经济参与方面的性别差距实际上有所扩大,尽管在教育方面的性别差距有所缩小。 For the world as a whole, the report shows that 96 per cent of health gaps, 93 per cent of education gaps, 60 per cent of economic gaps and only 21 per cent of political gaps have been closed. Globally, women are almost as healthy and as educated as men. Unfortunately, women are still far from full integration and parity in economic and political decision-making. This is a waste of talent and a missed opportunity to build prosperity. A wide array of studies confirms that countries with large gender gaps tend to be less competitive. 从世界整体来看,报告显示,96%的健康差距,93%的教育差距,60%的经济差距以及21%的政治差距已经消除。全球来看,女性与男性的健康程度和受教育程度几乎一样。不幸的是,在经济和政治决策方面女性还远未实现完全的融合和平等。这在创造繁荣的过程中是一种人才的浪费和错失的机会。大量研究实,性别差距较大的国家往往竞争力也差一些。 While correlation does not prove causality, the reasoning is quite simple. Empowering women means a more efficient use of a nation’s human capital endowment and therefore over time a nation’s competitiveness depends, among other things, on whether and how it educates and utilises its female talent. Similarly, at the company level the best decision-making and innovation occurs when the female talent pool is fully engaged and integrated. 虽然相关性未必就是因果关系,但推理是非常简单的。妇女赋权意味着对一个国家人力资本更加高效率的利用,因此随着时间的转移,决定一个国家的竞争力的,除了别的因素之外,还有如何教育并利用女性人才。类似地,在公司层面,当女性人才得到充分利用并融合时,就会有最佳的决策和创新。 The fact that women make up more than half of university graduates in many developed countries and in many emerging markets, has transformed the global talent pool. Add to that the growing purchasing power of women and it is clear why governments and companies must take account of the rising economic clout of women as consumers, clients, workers and decision makers. The governments and companies that are quickest to recognise these trends will earn high dividends on their investments in gender parity. In today’s world, women’s rights are not only human rights – they are a key determinant of economic performance and winning the race to prosperity has become synonymous with winning the race to equality. 很多发达国家和新兴经济体大学毕业生中女性占一半以上,这个事实转变了全球的人才储备。再加上女性购买力的增加,显然,政府和企业必须考虑女性作为消费者、客户以及决策者不断强化的经济力量。最快意识到这些趋势的政府和企业,将会从性别平等投资获得高回报。在今天的世界,女性权利不仅是人权,也是一个关键的经济表现要素。谁赢得了性别平等的竞赛,谁就赢得了繁荣竞赛。 Laura D. Tyson is a professor of management and director of the Institute for Business and Social Impact at the University of California’s Berkeley-Haas School of Business. Saadia Zahidi is head of the World Economic Forum’s Gender Parity and Human Capital programmes. 劳拉#8226;D#8226;泰森(Laura D. Tyson)是美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California’s Berkeley)哈斯商学院(Haas School of Business)管理学教授、商业和社会影响研究所(Institute for Business and Social Impact)所长。萨阿迪亚#8226;扎希迪(Saadia Zahidi)是世界经济论坛性别平等和人力资本项目主管。 /201311/266490

It#39;s time to stop wallowing in pessimismabout the world#39;s future.不要再悲观于世界未来了。Over the past four weeks, we’ve had a runof undeniably good news. A panoply of data has shown that the U.S. economicsystem appears to be on firm ground. More people have jobs, albeit notnecessarily sterling jobs, and the pace of overall activity as measured by GDPis at the highest level in two years, expanding at 4.1 percentannually. On the political front, Congress passed a budget for the first timein more than three years, which suggests a period ahead where Washingtontantrums do not threaten to upend whatever delicate equilibrium currentlyexists.在过去四周时间里,确实发生了很多好新闻。华丽丽的数据表明美国经济正变得稳健。更多人找到工作,虽然这些工作并非都是非常好的工作,总体的GDP是两年来最好的,每年都增加4.1%。在政治领域,国会三年多来首次通过了预算案,表明在未来一段时期内,不管华盛顿政界风云如何变化,都不可能威胁到目前的大好局势。And yet, an aura of unease still seems tohover over us. In the year or more that I have written this column, I haveoften emphasized the way in which things may be going at least a bit right.That contrasts with the frequently repeated mantra that we are goingdangerously off the rails. Of course, like anyone, I may be right or wrong orsomewhere in between. What’s been perplexing about responses to this column,however, isn’t whether the analysis is right or wrong, wise or na#239;ve, but thatthe very hint of optimism makes a fair number of people extremely angry.然而,一种不安气氛依旧笼罩着我们。在我写专栏文章的这一年多来,我一直都强调事情正在好转。与此形成相反的是,坊间还是流传着大量的悲观咒语,说我们正在一步步危险的脱离正轨。当然,像任何人一样,我的看法有对的,也有不对的,或者介于两者之间。然而在看了人们对我文章的回复后,令人费解的他们所关心的并非我所写的东西是对是错、明智的还是天真的,而是对文章中的乐观情绪表现出极度的愤怒。It may be, of course, that my optimism ismisplaced. It may be that the ed States is actually headed to hell in aproverbial handbasket; that Europe is in a brief lull before its next legtoward dissolution of the Union; that Japan’s easy money spigot unleashed bythe new government of Shinzo Abe will end with the same no-exit stagnation ofthe past 20 years; and the glorious story of emerging economies from Brazil toMexico to India to China will end not so gloriously. It may also be thatwhatever appears to be working in the developed world is in truth working onlyfor a small minority—for the wealthy and members of the middle class inprivileged urban areas, and for anyone tethered to financial markets and globalcommerce.当然,也有可能是我的乐观情绪放错位了。或许美国越来越没得救了;欧盟也存在解体的风险;而日本如今的宽松货币政策或许将导致另外一个衰退的20年;而新兴国家比如巴西、墨西哥、印度和中国的经济神话或许不会有灿烂的结局。还有就是不管发达国家如何发展,其最终受益者都是那些都市里的特权中产阶级,或者是金融市场和全球贸易里的商人。But possibly being wrong doesn’t explainthe anger my columns have provoked, in the form of email and online reactions.Weather forecasters and sports experts are routinely wrong about outcomes, andwhile those missed predictions can trigger some ridicule, they’re not usually arecipe for rage.虽然我的乐观情绪可能是不对的,但是这并不能解释为何我的文章会引发这么多的愤怒,有些人发邮件给我表达他们的愤怒,有的直接在网上回复。天气预报和体育专家也有不准确的时候,虽然二者的错误预测可能会引发人们的嘲弄,但并不经常引起人们的巨大愤怒。True, the online world of comments andcommentary skews towards the negative, especially in the realm of economics andpolitics. People are more likely to express feelings based on disagreement anda sense of outrage than they are to react based on concord. Anger is a hotexperience that triggers action; agreement, even strong agreement, tends to bea more passive reaction.是的,网民们的和观点都倾向于消极,特别是在经济和政治议题上。人们更倾向于表达自己的异议和愤怒,而不是赞许。愤怒才能起激发人们行动;而赞许,甚至是强烈的赞许,只是一种更加消极和被动的反应。But why does optimism about today’s worldgenerate such strong hostility? Perhaps because it contradicts what many peoplebelieve. Positive views on the present are seen as a slap in the face by peoplewho have negative experiences, which, according to some polls, is the majorityof Americans. Surveys suggest that more Americans than ever—66 percent,according to one poll—believe that the country is headed in the wrongdirection. Other polls say much the same thing. Two years ago the numberswere even worse. Americans of the past few years are less positive about thefuture than they have been at any point since the 1970s.为什么对如今世界的乐观情绪会激发如此强烈的敌意呢?或者这是因为这与人们的信念相违背了。对那些经历过消极经验的人来说,对现状的乐观情绪就好像是一巴掌拍在他们脸上,而根据一些调查结果显示,大多数美国人都有过消极经验。调查结果表明比以往任何时候都多的美国人——根据一项调查的结果,是66%——认为美国正在朝错误的方向前进。其他民调结果也表明了这一点。而在两年前,这个数据更加糟糕。最近几年的美国人比70年代以来大部分时间里的美国人都更加消极悲观。Interestingly, according to these surveys,blacks and Hispanics in the ed States are more positive about the futurethan whites, perhaps reflecting the degree to which white males have seen theirfortunes decline on a relative basis over the past decades, while Hispanicsespecially have seen significant improvement in incomes andeducation. That said, it is difficult to know the race and gender breakdown ofonline reactions to my political and economic analysis.好玩的是,根据这些研究的说法,美国的西班牙人和黑人比白人对未来更加积极乐观,这或许反映了过去几十年来白人财富在相对缩水,而西班牙人在收入和教育上有了长足的进步。即便如此,在对我的经济和政治性文章做出回复的人中,我们也不知道这些人是由哪种性别和种族构成的。The problem is that in a country of 300million people, let alone a world of 7 billion, any statement about an economicor societal trend is likely to differ from the actual experience of a greatmany people. While there may be upsides to the changing mechanisms of oureconomic system, there are unequivocally winners and losers and many shadesbetween. Any suggestion that the struggles of one group may be juxtaposedagainst, though not offset by, the flourishing of another group can seemdisrespectful and even indifferent to the challenges faced by many people.问题是,在一个3亿人口的国家中,更别提全世界的70亿了,任何对经济和社会趋势所进行的预测都很可能与很多人的实际经验存在反差。虽然经济系统的改变存在好的一面,但是肯定有输家和赢家,还有介于这两者之间的人。一些人的富有与另一些人的贫穷尽管没法抵消,但是可以并行存在,持这种看法的人会被人认为是不敬的和冷漠的。The answer, however, is not to focusrelentlessly on what isn’t working. Every society must find some balancebetween addressing real shortcomings and building on real strengths. The edStates in particular oscillates between excessive self-congratulation (“theindispensable nation,” “the freest nation on Earth”) and extremeself-criticism. We can be making a transition from a manufacturing economy toan idea economy that sees millions finding a new way, and millions suffering.We can be educating millions brilliantly while failing to educate millions atall. We can see thriving urban centers even as suburban sprawl melts under toomuch debt and overpriced homes.然而,问题的并不在于总是关注不好的一面。任何一个社会都得在解决实际缺陷和建立实际优势之间取得平衡。尤其是美国,在过度的沾沾自喜(“不可或缺的国家,”“世界上最自由的国家“)和极端自我批评之间摇摆不定。我们可以做出转变,把美国从一个制造业经济转变成理念经济,从而使有些人找到了新的生活方式,而另外一些人遭受痛苦。我们可以对一些人进行成功的教育,而使另外一些人在教育上失败。我们可以建立起繁荣的都市中心,而与此同时,郊区负债累累、房价高昂。Optimism, as the theoretical physicistDavid Deutsch so brilliantly describes in The Beginnings of Infinity,doesn’t mean surety about good future outcomes. Optimism is simply thecertainty that any human progress to date has been a product of our collectiveability to understand how things work and to craft solutions. The convictionthat the present is a prelude to a bad future negates that collective ability.Yes, we may indeed be at the end of the line, but by angrily dismissingoptimistic arguments we are likely to fail more rapidly. Why bother strivingfor constructive change if you firmly reject the possibility? That leaves onlyone viable alternative: to envision a path forward. That path may notmaterialize, but striving to find it is a vital component of creating thefuture we dream about, and not the one that we fear.正如理论物理学家DavidDeutsch在《无限的开端》中所生动描述的,乐观主义并不是对未来美好结果的保。乐观主义是对我们人类迄今为止所取得的成就是我们集体思考和能力的产物的观念的肯定。而如果你消极悲观的话,那么你就是在否定这种集体智慧和能力。是的,或许我们已经到达了极限,但是如果我们以愤怒的态度来拒绝乐观的言论,那么我们可能会失败得更快。如果你对未来完全没有信心,那进行结构性的改变又有什么意义?所以我们只有一个选择:想象出一条前进的道路。这条道路或许无法实现,但是只有努力探索我们才可能创造出我们想要的未来,而不是我们害怕的未来。 /201312/270975


文章编辑: 飞度云生活
>>图片新闻