时间:2017年10月23日 11:59:08

Now a new study has found when one spouse begins to put on weight, their partner#39;s risk of obesity almost doubles.如今,一项新研究发现,当夫妻一方增重,其伴侣肥胖率将翻倍。Men whose wives became obese, were 78 per cent more likely to follow suit, while having a husband who became obese was linked to an 89 per cent increased risk of wives putting on too much weight.对男性而言,当妻子变得肥胖时,丈夫有78%的可能会跟着肥胖;当丈夫为肥胖者时,妻子的体重有89%的几率会跟着增长。Dr Laura Cobb, who led the study at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, said: #39;Normal weight people whose spouses went from being normal weight to obese were more likely to become obese.这项研究由来自霍普金斯大学的劳拉·科布负责,她说:“如果夫妻中的一方婚后才开始变肥胖,那么另一方更容易肥胖。;Dr Cobb and colleagues followed almost 4,000 couples for up to 25 years, starting between 1987 and 1989.科布士和其他研究人员对4000对夫妇进行了25年的跟踪调查,研究始于1987和1989年间。At the start of the study, 23 per cent of the men and 25 per cent of the women were obese.在研究开始阶段,对象中23%的男性和25%的女性是胖子。Non-obese men whose wives became obese between visits were 78 per cent more likely to become obese during that period than they would have been had their wives not gained so much weight, the researchers found.研究者发现,当妻子在研究进行期间发胖,那么体重正常的丈夫变肥胖的可能性比原来增加78%。Having a husband become obese was linked to an 89 per cent increased risk of developing obesity for their wives.而如果妻子有一位发胖的丈夫,她发胖的几率将比原来增加89%。It#39;s not unusual for married couples to forge common habits over time that influence their weight, said Ivanka Prichard, a weight loss researcher at Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia.对于已婚伴侣来说,他们会渐渐形成同样的习惯,这些习惯通常影响着他们的体重。来自澳大利亚阿德莱德弗林德斯大学的减重研究者伊万卡·普理查德如是说。#39;Over time, similarities in diet, particularly any unhealthy aspects, may lead to weight changes,#39; Dr Prichard, who wasn#39;t involved in the study, told Reuters.“随着时间的推移,夫妻二人在饮食习惯,尤其是不健康的饮食习惯上会越来越相似,这将导致体重的增长。”普理查德士这样告诉路透社,他并未参与到研究中。#39;There are also a range of pressures in life that could impact this such as having children, work, shared health knowledge, time or finances.#39;“另外影响体重的还有诸多生活上的压力,比如孩子、工作、健康常识、时间安排还有家庭经济方面的问题。” /201511/409046

I#39;ve often wondered how exactly sleep, or lack of it , can have such a devastating effect on our bodies and, guess what, how much we sleep switches good genes on and bad genes off.我时常思考,睡眠的充足与否会对我们的身体健康带来怎样严重的后果;也不禁去猜测,多久的睡眠才会让基因发挥有益作用。In early 2013, the Sleep Research Centre at the University of Surrey found a direct link between hours spent sleeping and genes.2013年初,英国萨里大学的睡眠研究中心发现,睡眠时长与基因之间存在直接联系。Every cell in our bodies carries genetic instructions in our DNA that act as a kind of operating manual. However, each cell only #39;s#39; the portion of this manual it needs at any given moment.我们人体的每一个细胞中DNA所携带的遗传指令都相当于一套操作说明。然而在任何时候,细胞都只能够读取其需要的说明。Can sleep affect how a gene s instructions? It#39;s a question asked by Professor Derk-Jan Dijk at the University of Surrey.睡眠能够影响基因读取其操作说明吗?萨里大学的教授德克-简·迪克提出了这一问题。He set up an experiment and asked his volunteers to spend a week sleeping around seven and a half hours to eight hours a night and the next sleeping six and a half to seven hours.他着手进行了一项实验,要求志愿者们每晚睡大约七个半到八个小时,一个星期后再将睡眠时间调整为六个半到七个小时。Blood samples were taken each week to compare which genes in blood cells were being used during the long and short nights. The results were startling.他将志愿者这两周的血液样本进行比对,观察在不同睡眠时长下,血细胞中的基因运作情况有何不同。实验结果令人大吃一惊。Several hundred genes changed in the amount they were being used, including some that are linked to heart disease, cancer, and Type 2 diabetes.数百种基因的使用状况因为睡眠时长的不同而改变,其中一些基因还与心脏病、癌症以及2型糖尿病有关。Genes to do with cell repair and replenishment were used much less.对有关细胞修复与补给的基因的使用大为减少。Sleep restriction (six and a half to seven hours a night) changed 380 genes.睡眠的受限(一晚只睡六个半到七个小时)改变了380种基因。Of these, 220 genes were down regulated by sleep restriction (their power was reduced), while 160 were up regulated (their power was increased).其中,有220种基因表达下调(他们的活性降低),另外160种表达上调(他们的活性上升)。Those affected included body-clock genes which are linked to diabetes.那些包括控制生物钟在内的基因都受到了影响,而它们又都与糖尿病有关。One of the most downgraded genes is that which has a role in controlling insulin and is linked to diabetes and insomnia. The most upgraded gene is linked to heart disease.在表达下调程度最高的基因中,有一种负责控制胰岛素合成的基因与糖尿病和失眠密切相关。而表达上调程度最高的基因则与心脏病有关联。So changing sleep by tiny amounts can upgrade or downgrade genes that can influence our health and the diseases we become prey to when we sleep too little.因此,稍微缩短睡眠时长就会改变基因的运作状态,进而影响到我们的身体健康。若是睡得太少,疾病说来就来。The important message is that getting close to eight hours of sleep a night can make a dramatic difference to our health in just a few days through the way it looks after our genes.实验所传达的重要信息是,保每晚近八小时的睡眠是对我们的基因负责;仅仅几天的充足睡眠,我们的健康也会有巨大的改观。So resist staying up late to listen to another podcast, one more chapter, have one more drink or do a little bit more work, mistakenly thinking it won#39;t make much difference. It will.所以说,要是你坚持熬夜再看一个视频,再多读一章小说,再多贪一杯酒或是再多干点儿活,还安慰自己这没什么大不了的话,那你会后悔的。 /201602/426408

Ming Dynasty明朝Building the Great Wall修建长城After the Ming army defeat at Battle of Tumubao and later raids by the Mongols under a new leader, Altan Khan, the Ming adopted a new strategy for dealing with the northern horsemen: a giant impregnable wall.土木堡之役战败以及蒙古的新领袖俺答汗威胁之后,明朝采取了对付北方马背上的民族的新策略——一座巨大的坚不可摧的城墙。Almost 100 years earlier (1368) the Ming had started building a new, technically advanced fortification which today is called the Great Wall of China.早在100多年前,明朝开始修建了一个新的、技术先进的防御工事,今天我们称其为“长城”。Created at great expense the wall followed the new borders of the Ming Empire.这座城墙沿着大明帝国的新边界,耗资巨大。Acknowledging the control which the Mongols established in the Ordos, south of the Huang He, the wall follows what is now the northern border of Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces.意识到蒙古人在黄河南部的鄂尔多斯建立的统治,城墙围住了现在的陕西省和山西省的北部边界。Work on the wall largely superseded military expeditions against the Mongols for the last 80 years of the Ming dynasty and continued up until 1644, when the dynasty collapsed.修建长城的工事远远超过了对于蒙古的军事远征,它一直持续到明朝的最后80年,直到明朝于1644年灭亡。The Great Wall seen today was built during the Ming Dynasty (明朝), on a much larger scale and with longer lasting materials than any wall built before.今天我们看到的长城就建于明朝,明长城规模更大,其使用的材料也比早先建的长城更加持久。The primary purpose of the wall was not to keep out people, who could climb the wall, but make it difficult for semi-nomadic people outside the wall to cross with their horses or return with stolen property.修建长城最原始的目的并不是为了阻止会爬墙的人们进入而是为了使游牧民族的人们骑马翻过墙并偷走财物更加困难。The Ming Dynasty Great Wall starts on the eastern end at Shanhai Pass, near Qinhuangdao, in Hebei Province, next to Bohai Gulf.明城墙东起河北省秦皇岛渤海湾附近的山海关。Spanning nine provinces and 100 counties, the final 500 kilometers have all but turned to rubble, and today it ends on the western end at the historic site of Jiayu Pass (嘉峪关), located in northwest Gansu Province at the limit of the Gobi Desert and the oases of the Silk Road (丝調之路).跨过9省100市,其最终的500公里今天已经全部化为废墟,现在它西至西南甘肃省的嘉峪关遗址,这几乎到达了戈壁和丝绸之路。Jiayu Pass was intended to greet travelers along the Silk Road.嘉峪关本来是为了丝绸之路上的游人的地方。Even though The Great Wall ends at Jiayu Pass, there are many watchtowers (烽火台)extending beyond Jiayu Pass along the Silk Road.尽管长城止于嘉峪关,在嘉峪关之外的丝绸之路上仍有很多烽火台。These towers communicated by smoke to signal invasion.这些烽火台通过狼烟来发出入侵的信号。The Kokes Manchus crossed the Wall by convincing an important general Wu Sangui(吴三桂)to open the gates of Shanhai Pass and allow the Manchus to cross.满洲人通过说重要的守关将领吴三桂打开山海关的大门放他们入关通过了长城。Legend has it that they took three days for the Manchu armies to pass.传说满洲军队花了三天时间入关。After they conquered China, the Wall was of no strategic value as the people whom the Wall was intended to keep out were ruling the country.在他们征中国之后,长城就没有了战略价值,因此它所要抵挡的人们已经统治了整个国家。 /201512/412243

Women are paying thousands of dollars more over the course of their lives than men to purchase similar products, according to a study of the gender pricing of goods in New York City conducted by Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA).美国纽约消费者事务部近日对产品的;性别定价;进行了调查,结果表明,女性一生中购买同类产品的成本,要比男性高出数千美元。Comparing nearly 800 products from more than 90 brands sold in store and online, DCA found that on average and across five industries, women#39;s products cost 7% more than similar products for men.消费者事务部对纽约市实体店和网络销售的90多个品牌的近800种商品价格进行了调查,结果发现,在5大领域里,女性产品价格平均要比男性产品高出7%。The five industries specifically referred to toys and accessories, children#39;s clothing, adult clothing, personal care products and senior/home health care products.这5大领域分别是:玩具/装饰品、童装、成年饰、个人护理用品和家庭保健用品。In all but five of the 35 product categories analyzed, products for female consumers were priced higher than those for male consumers. Across the sample, the DCA found that women#39;s products cost more 42 percent of the time whereas men#39;s products cost more 18 percent of the time.在总计35个商品子门类当中,有30个都存在女性版比男性版昂贵的现象。在所有商品样本当中,男性版更贵的情况占18%,而女性版更贵的占42%。Giving some case studies, such as children#39;s cycle helmets, scooters, shampoo and razor cartridges, the DCA showed how similar, or even almost identical products, can cost different amounts for men and women.消费者事务部表示,有些产品,比如儿童自行车头盔、踏板车、洗发水和剃刀刀片等,男女版本差异极小,甚至没有差异,但价格却明显不同Over the course of a woman#39;s life, the financial impact of these gender-based pricing disparities ;is significant,; the DCA said in its report.消费者事务部在报告当中总结道,如果具体到一个女性的一生,这种性别定价造成的差异,其影响将是“非常巨大”的。;Individual consumers do not have control over the textiles or ingredients used in the products marketed to them and must make purchasing choices based only on what is available in the marketplace. As such, choices made by manufacturers and retailers result in a greater financial burden for female consumers than for male consumers.;“个体消费者不可能控制这些商品的制造,她们只能在市场上提供的各种商品之间做出选择。这也就意味着,选择权是在制造商和零售商手中,而结果就是,女性消费者不得不担起比男性沉重得多的负担。” /201512/419067

文章编辑: 挂号服务家庭医生