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来源:芒果资讯    发布时间:2017年12月16日 20:59:41    编辑:admin         

The Ache: Some 26 million Americans suffer from asthma -- a chronic inflammation of airways in the lungs that causes coughing, chest tightness, wheezing and shortness of breath, according to the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.病痛:美国过敏、哮喘与免疫学院(American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)发布的数据显示,大约有2,600万美国人患有哮喘。这是肺部呼吸道的一种慢性炎症,能引发咳嗽、胸部压迫感、气喘、以及呼吸急促等病症。Since you can still have an asthma attack despite regular medications, many patients try alternative treatments -- but there is little evidence they work, clinicians say.即便接受常规治疗,哮喘仍然会发作,因此许多患者都在尝试另类疗法。但临床医生指出,目前还几乎没有据表明这些疗法有效。The Claim: Ginger, a root known for its strong, earthy flavor, can help ease symptoms of asthma by opening constricted airways.主张:生姜这种有强烈、质 气味的植物根茎能够使原本收缩的呼吸道通畅,从而有助缓解哮喘症状。The Verdict: Ginger, well known as a therapy for an upset stomach, is recently getting attention among scientists for what appears to be its capacity to open constricted airways -- demonstrated in several recent studies, in animals and in human cells tested in a lab.定论:生姜用于治疗胃部不适的功效广为人知,最近它又引起了科学家的关注,因为近期针对动物和人体细胞的几项实验室研究显示,生姜似乎能够使收缩的呼吸道更加通畅。Human tests, however, are needed to show efficacy, says American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology President Michael Foggs. If ginger does prove useful, he adds, it most likely would be taken with existing medicines that control the underlying airway inflammation.但美国过敏、哮喘与免疫学院院长Michael Foggs表示,上述功效仍需要通过人体实验的验。他补充说,如果生姜被实的确有效,就很可能被用来与控制潜在呼吸道炎症的现有药物同时使用。Ginger can be ingested as a fresh root or in capsules as a dietary supplement. In traditional Chinese medicine, it would typically be consumed as a tea -- generally with up to a dozen other herbs -- as a treatment for certain types of asthma-like symptoms, says Allen Sayigh, manager of the Chinese herb dispensary at Bastyr University in Seattle.生姜既可以新鲜根茎的形式摄入,也能以作为食物补充剂的胶囊形式摄入。西雅图美国巴斯帝尔大学(Bastyr University)中药部经理Allen Sayigh说,在传统的中药中,生姜通常是作为一种茶饮――往往与十余种其他草药同时使用――用于治疗某些类似哮喘的症状。Recent research has found ginger works by simultaneously inhibiting an enzyme that helps cause airway muscles to constrict and activating another enzyme that tends to relax the airways, says biomedical engineer Elizabeth Townsend, co-author of a study published online in the January issue of the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.生物医学工程师汤森(Elizabeth Townsend)说,最近的研究发现,生姜可以抑制一种导致呼吸道肌肉收缩的?,同时激活另一种会使呼吸道放松的?,从而发挥疗效。汤森合着的一项研究被刊登在《美国呼吸道细胞和分子生物学期刊》(American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology) 1月份网络刊上。The study, which tested the effects of ginger components on isolated human airway cells, found ginger worked particularly well in combination with a medication currently used in bronchodilators asthmatics carry in case they have trouble breathing.这项研究测试了生姜成分对单独的人体呼吸道细胞的影响,发现当生姜与另外一种现有药物同时使用时效果尤其显著。上述现有药物被用于哮喘患者呼吸困难时使用的气管扩张剂中。In rodents, several studies found injections of ginger extracts helped ease simulated asthma conditions. A French study, published in 2008 in the journal International Immunopharmacology, found a ginger extract softened an inflammatory reaction in mouse lungs after the mice were exposed to allergens that irritated their lungs.针对啮齿类动物的几项研究发现,注射生姜提取物有助于缓解类哮喘症状。《国际免疫药理学》(International Immunopharmacology)期刊2008年发表的一项法国研究发现,对于暴露在过敏原中、肺部受到刺激的老鼠,生姜提取物可以缓解老鼠肺部的炎症反应。Richard J. Martin, professor and chairman of the department of medicine at National Jewish Health, a hospital in Denver, called the human-cell and rodent lab results #39;promising#39; but added that ginger #39;may have absolutely no effect#39; on humans.位于丹佛的美国犹太健康医院(National Jewish Health)药物部门教授和负责人马丁(Richard J. Martin)称,人体细胞和啮齿类动物实验结果让人看到了希望,但他补充说,生姜可能对人类没有任何效果。It won#39;t hurt to try ginger, says Maureen George, assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing in Philadelphia and author of a review article on complementary therapies for asthma. #39;Even if we don#39;t have definite evidence that it is going to promote bronchial smooth muscle relaxation,#39; it is generally safe, she says.位于费城的宾夕法尼亚大学(University of Pennsylvania)护理学院(School of Nursing)助理教授乔治(Maureen George)说,尝试一下生姜没有坏处。她说,即使没有确切据表明生姜有助于促进气管平滑肌放松,但它基本是安全的。乔治是一篇有关于哮喘辅助疗法文章的作者。She cautions that, since ginger grows in the ground and can be contaminated by pesticides, it is a good idea to look for organic fresh root.她警告说,由于生姜生长在地下,可能会被农药污染,因此寻找有机新鲜生姜可能是个好主意。 /201401/272933。

The Prime Minister was seen walking with his youngest daughter Florence on his shoulders as he took her to nursery.英国首相卡梅伦近日被拍到送小女儿弗罗伦丝去幼儿园,小姑娘骑在爸爸的肩膀上。They left No10 with her scooter but the Prime Minister ended up carrying the three-year-old.父女俩出门时是带着弗罗伦丝的滑板车离开唐宁街的,但卡梅伦最后亲自驮着他3岁的小女儿。Florence, wearing a multi-coloured polka dot safety helmet, could not resist cheekily covering her father#39;s eyes as he held on tight to her ankles. She then grabbed his face with both hands.弗罗伦丝戴着波点的安全帽,她的爸爸扶着她的脚踝,而小女孩则调皮地遮住爸爸的眼睛。然后她甚至用双手揪住爸爸的脸。Mr Cameron has spoken in the past about the challenge of juggling the school run with running the country.卡梅伦首相之前在谈到管理国家大事时,也曾提到尽力抽时间接送孩子上下学的挑战。He said: ;Maybe once a week, sometimes once a fortnight, tragically sometimes once a month I manage to take my children to school, but it#39;s got to be possible to be a decent husband, a good father and a good prime minister at the same time.;他说道:“我在一周或者两周、更糟糕的是有时候要一个月才有时间送孩子上一次学,但是这一定是个好机会,它能帮助我同时成为一个体贴的丈夫、一个合格的老爸和一个优秀的首相。”Unusually, Mr Cameron did not seem to mind who saw him with Florence, with the pictures approved for publication by Downing Street.在一张唐宁街认可发表的图片中,卡梅伦先生看起来并不介意被看到和弗罗伦丝在一起。Mr Cameron, 47, is normally extremely careful about guarding his children#39;s privacy.47岁的卡梅伦平时非常谨慎地保护孩子的隐私。It comes as the Prime Minister prepares for a two-day trip to Israel and the Palestinian territories, accompanied by a delegation including Natasha Kaplinksy, the former B newser, and British business leaders including two Conservative party donors.有消息称,卡梅伦首相安排了前往以色列和巴勒斯坦领土的两日行程,随行的有一队代表团,成员包括B前任新闻播音员娜塔莎·卡布林克斯,以及保守党的两大赞助者在内的英国商业领袖。 /201403/280053。

A best man from central China whose iPhone was stolen after a stag night was “stunned” when the thief posted him a handwritten list of more than 1,000 contacts stored on the device.在中国中部的一个城市,一个小伙子在参加单身派对时iPhone被偷了,但使他“震惊”的是,小偷居然把他电话里存的1000多个联系人的号码全部手抄了一遍,然后给他寄了回去。Zou Bin, a barman from Changsha, the capital of Hunan province, told local media he had been commemorating his best friend’s wedding on November 14 in the nearby city of Yiyang.邹彬是湖南省省会长沙的一个酒保,他对当地媒体说,11月14日那天,他是在靠近长沙的益阳市参加自己挚友的婚礼。Mr Zou, whose age was not given, said he had lost his mobile phone the following day after passing in out in an illegal taxi that was taking him and three other bleary-eyed strangers home.邹先生并未透露其年龄,称他是在回家后的第二天丢失手机的。他说,那天他是和其他三个睡眼朦胧的陌生人一起搭的“黑车”回家的。Furious that he had lost not only his iPhone but also more than 1,000 work-related contacts, Mr Zou borrowed a friend’s mobile phone and began bombarding his own number with threatening text messages.邹先生感到非常愤怒的不仅仅是因为他丢了自己的iPhone手机,更重要的是手机里存了1000多个工作上的联系人号码。邹先生借用了朋友的手机,开始对自己原先的号码进行威胁短信的狂轰滥炸。“You can be sure that I will find you,” he vowed. “Just have a look through my contacts and you will see who I am. If you are clever, you will send the mobile back to the following address…”“你要知道我肯定会找到你的,” 他发誓称。“只要你看看我的联系人就知道我是谁了。如果你稍微聪明点,就把手机寄到下面的地址……”Mr Zou told Hunan’s Xiaoxiao Morning Herald he had been “bluffing” and had not expected to recover the iPhone 4, which is worth around £270 in China, or its contents.邹先生告诉湖南《潇湘晨报》,他一直是在“吓唬小偷”,实际上也不指望自己的iPhone 4 能回来。在中国,这样一部手机大概值270英镑(约合人民币2658元)。So he was “stupefied” when, just four days later, a parcel was couriered to his front door. There was no sign of the iPhone inside but the package did contain 11 pieces of paper containing each and every telephone number and email that had been stored on the stolen device.然而使他颇为“震惊”的是,仅仅四天后快递公司送货上门了。包裹里装的不是邹先生的iPhone,而是11张纸,纸上满满写着被盗手机里存储的所有人的电话号码和电子邮箱。“All of the numbers were handwritten,” said Mr Zou. “It would take a long time simply to write the numbers 1 to 1,000 let alone all those names and telephone numbers. It must have given him a swollen hand.”“所有的数字都是手抄的,” 邹先生说,“仅仅从数字1写到1000就要蛮长时间了,更不用说手机里的所有名字和电话号码了。他肯定抄得手都肿了。”Two clear morals emerged from his story, a relieved Mr Zou told journalists.邹先生告诉记者,从他的亲身经历中他看清了两点。“Don’t just give up if you lose your phone – sometimes bluffing works,” he said. “But it is also best to save your contacts to your SIM card so you spare the thief some writing.”“如果手机丢了不能就此放弃,有时候吓唬吓唬小偷还是有用的,”邹先生说。“但如果你要给小偷省点儿工作量,最好还是把联系人存进SIM卡里。” /201311/266358。

When Jean Paul Gaultier announced at the beginning of the women#39;s wear season#39;s four-ring, four-week circus that this Saturday#39;s show would be his last y-to-wear collection, and that he was going to concentrate on couture and fragrance and special collaborations like costumes and interiors instead, it seemed like the end of an era.在这个辗转四城、为期四周的女装季之初,让·保罗·高缇耶(Jean Paul Gaultier)就宣布:周六的走秀将是他的最后一个成衣系列,此后他将专注于高级定制装和香水,以及戏和室内设计方面的特殊合作,感觉像是一个时代结束了。The first reaction was shock: Oh, no! How can we imagine a y-to-wear schedule without the one-time enfant terrible of French fashion — whose y-to-wear shows had been among the hottest tickets in fashion week, with editors literally fighting for entree? Even if, in recent seasons, many of those same editors (myself included) had thought (or, ahem, written) that Mr. Gaultier#39;s y-to-wear was becoming increasingly irrelevant, relying on the crutch of old ideas that may have been sensationalist 15 years ago, but now seemed achingly familiar?人们的第一反应是震惊:啊,不!我们怎能想象成衣盛事中不再有这个法国时尚曾经的淘气鬼呢——在这个时装季上,他的成衣秀的入场券最为抢手,时尚编辑们为了入场资格“大打出手”。最近几季,这些时装编辑中有许多人(包括我自己在内)也觉得高缇耶的成衣愈来愈落后于潮流,依仗的是了无新意的创意,它们放在15年前可能很轰动,今天就显得极其平庸了,尽管如此,我们还是会抢票。Then came sadness: Was this yet another example of commerce squashing creativity, with the Spanish conglomerate Puig, which bought a majority stake in Mr. Gaultier#39;s company from Hermès in 2011, bloodlessly stopping support of what had ceased to be a moneymaking endeavor? (Well, it#39;s a license business, so probably not.) Absent from the y-to-wear schedule and all the attention it draws, would Mr. Gaultier, like Christian Lacroix, another formerly famous French name that slid off the schedule on the back of falling sales and who is now concentrating on (yup) costumes and other collaborations, fade into the ether of long ago?随之而来的反应是悲伤:这是否又是一个商业击垮创意的例子呢?要知道,2011年,西班牙产业集团普依格(Puig)从爱马仕手中买下了高缇耶公司的多数股份,它无情地停止持那些不能赚钱的尝试(好吧,它是一家特许公司,所以可能是否定的)。高缇耶离开了成衣走秀和它所带来的各种关注,是否会走上克里斯汀·拉克鲁瓦(Christian Lacroix)的老路,消失在过去时代的迷雾之中呢?拉克鲁瓦也曾是一个响亮的法国名字,销量下滑后离开了成衣走秀,如今专注于(这个……)戏和其他方面的合作。But then, after sitting through show after show in New York and London and Milan, I started to think perhaps we were looking at this the wrong way.但是在纽约、伦敦和米兰看了一场又一场的走秀之后,我开始觉得我们的视角或许错了。Maybe it is a much-needed public acknowledgment of a subject that has been mumbled and grumbled about in ateliers and over dinners throughout the last few weeks, as vintage this and accessible that have been regularly repackaged and presented as the Hot New Thing.就像古董或普通的东西经常被拿出来重新包装成流行的新玩意,它不再退出成衣系列的消息最近几周来成为了各工作室和餐桌上的热门话题,而他的声明是对这个话题非常有必要的公开承认。Maybe this is someone finally acting on the belief that what the cycle now demands from designers — to be creative and original about every two months — is not sustainable. Maybe it is someone making a choice, and just saying no. And he is doing it with corporate support (the corporate side of things, in fashion, often being demonized as bleeding designers dry instead of allowing them the luxury of fewer products).时装圈要求设计师每隔两个月都要有创意和创新,或许他相信这种事很难维持下去,于是终于采取了行动。或许他做了选择,对此说“不”。他的做法得到了公司的持(在时装界,公司方面经常被妖魔化为榨干设计师的鲜血,而不是允许他们享有只推出少量产品的奢侈)。After all, when Mr. Gaultier started his business in 1982, fashion was not even an industry. Designers made two collections a year. When he introduced couture in 1997, that brought his grand total of collections up to four. With men#39;s wear, it went to ... six!毕竟,当高缇耶从1982年创办自己的公司时,时装甚至还算不上工业。设计师们每年推出两个系列。1997年,他引入了高级定制概念,于是每年总共要推出四个系列。加上男装,就变成了……六个系列!Now, of course, a designer in a similar position is looking at about double that, thanks to the rise of pre-collections and occasion collections. And given that from 2003 to 2010 Mr. Gaultier was also the artistic director of Hermès women#39;s wear, you can add a few more numbers to the list.如今,由于预系列和临时系列的兴起,像他这样的设计师工作量可能要翻番。而且从2003年至2010年,高缇耶还担任爱马仕女装的艺术总监,你可以在他的工作列表上再添几项。As a result, said the designer in a letter to Women#39;s Wear Daily explaining his decision, ;Commercial constraints, as well as the frenetic pace of collections, don#39;t leave any freedom, nor the necessary time to find fresh ideas and to innovate.;其结果正如这位设计师发表在《女装日报》(Women#39;s Wear Daily),解释自己决定的信中所说:“商业的限制以及推出系列的疯狂步调让我不得自由,也没有时间去革新、寻找新的创意。”Arguably his creative famine is his own fault for having taken on so much over the years, however good the reasons seemed at the time (to support his own line; for the challenge; all of the above). But there is no greater proof of his words than his own career.认为他才思枯竭是自己造成的这样一种看法——因为这些年他负担一直太重,不管理由在当时是多么理所当然(持自己的品牌、接受挑战,或者上述全部)——是值得商榷的。不过,事实胜过雄辩。Mr. Gaultier#39;s extraordinary technical abilities and understanding of how to construct a garment, skills he learned in the ateliers of Pierre Cardin and Jean Patou, allowed him to turn fashion on its head, challenging such received notions of dress and society as where underwear belongs, that religious garb was a sacred cow, and that basics were — well, basic.高缇耶非凡的技术能力和对制作衣的理解,以及他在皮尔·卡丹(Pierre Cardin)和让·巴杜(Jean Patou)的工作室学来的技巧,让他可以彻底改变时尚潮流,挑战装和社会的即成概念,诸如内衣的穿法,宗教装神圣不可触碰的观念,以及基本款装就是……基本的。But such ideas, worked through as completely and elegantly as they were on his runways, have not appeared in a very long time. Instead we got gimmicky guest appearances by paparazzi magnets like the stripper Dita Von Teese and the drag performer Conchita Wurst, this year#39;s Eurovision winner.这些观念虽然曾在他的秀台上得以完整与优雅的体现,却很久没有出现了。相反,他让脱衣舞娘蒂塔·冯·提斯(Dita Von Teese)和今年Eurovision的获奖者、异装演员肯奇塔·沃斯特(Conchita Wurst)这些八卦小报的宠儿们做奇怪的客串亮相。So, whether closing his y-to-wear business was Mr. Gaultier#39;s idea or not — Ralph Toledano, head of the Puig fashion division, said it was the designer#39;s decision, and given that Puig owns both Paco Rabanne and Nina Ricci, two houses that survived for decades on perfume alone before being restarted as y-to-wear brands, you can understand why they might think this O.K. — the fact is, in taking himself off the schedule, Mr. Gaultier is putting the issue on the table.所以,不管关掉成衣公司是不是高缇耶本人的主意——普依格时装部门的主管拉尔夫·托勒达诺(Ralph Toledano)说这是高缇耶自己的主意,普依格还拥有帕高·拉巴纳(Paco Rabanne)和莲娜丽兹(Nina Ricci)这两个品牌,它们都是在香水界生存了几十年后转为成衣品牌的,所以你可以理解,为什么普依格觉得高缇耶关掉公司也不要紧——事实就是,通过退出成衣界,高缇耶把问题摆在了桌面上。And for the first time, it is not there because of a crisis like John Galliano#39;s implosion at Dior in 2011 or Alexander McQueen#39;s suicide in 2010, occasions that caused momentary soul-searching in the industry, but because of a conscious, articulated decision.这一次的事不像2011年约翰·加利亚诺(John Galliano)在迪奥期间搞出的危机,或是2010年亚历山大·麦昆(Alexander McQueen)的自杀,那些事件在业界引起过片刻的深思, 高缇耶的放弃是出于深思熟虑,这在业界还是第一次。The question now is whether the step back from y-to-wear will make any obvious difference. If Mr. Gaultier can retrieve the magic of his earlier years in his couture shows — which once upon a time transformed my understanding of how clothes could transcend their antecedents (a couture fitting that involved a long evening dress that began in the form of a knit French marinière, but ended in gently wafting ostrich feathers is forever imprinted on my mind) — then the fashion world, which loves nothing more than rediscovering genius (or should I say ;Genius!;) will once again hold him up as an example. Perhaps even one worth following.如今的问题是,他离开成衣界是否会造成显著的改变。如果高缇耶可以重新得到他早年那些定制时装秀上的魔法——那些时装秀曾经改变了我对时装可以如何超越先例的理解(比如有这样一套定制装,包括一件晚礼,上身是针织的法式蓝白条纹,裙摆是飘飘荡荡的鸵鸟毛,它深深铭刻在我的心中)——时装界最喜欢的就是回归的天才(我是不是应该说“天才!”),那么他一旦归来,是否又会被树为典范呢?或许这也值得关注。If it doesn#39;t, of course, then as is its wont, fashion will blink, and move on.当然,如果他不能再找回那些魔法,时装界也会像它一贯以来的那样,眨眨眼睛,继续往前走。We will have to wait until next January to find out which situation proves true. But in the meantime, one thing is sure: come his spring swan song this week, Mr. Gaultier#39;s show will once again be the one to see. Mr. Toledano says they have aly been getting urgent phone calls from all over the world demanding tickets.我们会等到明年一月,来看看究竟是哪种情况。但是与此同时,有一件事是确定的:这个星期,来看他的春夏季天鹅之歌吧。高缇耶的走秀值得一看。托勒达诺说,全世界想要票的人都忙着给他打电话。Bring your elbow pads, and get y to push.戴上护肘,准备去抢票吧。 /201410/335079。

With its notoriously smoggy skies, Beijing seems to launch a new initiative to reduce air pollution almost every week.在北京灰蒙蒙的天空已经“闻名遐迩”之际,该城市似乎每周都要推出一项减少空气污染的新措施。Last week, local authorities said they wanted to build wind tunnels to funnel wind through the streets and blow away the bad air. This week, the state-run People#39;s Daily reported plans to spend .7 billion in the next five years to reduce air pollution. That spending will go toward measures that reduce air pollution from coal-fired power plants, vehicles, and industrial facilities. Such measures include building waste-gas treatment facilities, installing emissions-reduction technology at factories and power plants and using cleaner alternative fuels, it said.当地有关部门上周称,他们想建立风道,引导风从大街小巷通过并吹散雾霾。官方媒体《人民日报》本周则报道称,北京市计划5年内斥资77亿美元以减少大气污染;这些资金将用于燃煤、机动车排放、工业等方面的污染防治措施,具体包括建设废气处理设施、对工厂和电厂进行低排放术改造和采用清洁燃料替代燃煤。It#39;s an uphill battle, with some scientists concluding that China#39;s air quality is continuing to get worse despite such efforts. Environmental authorities recently said Beijing#39;s air quality won#39;t drop to healthy levels until 2030. Other cities across the country face similar challenges.这是一场苦战,一些科学家得出结论称,尽管采取了这类措施,但中国的空气质量将继续恶化。环保部门最近称,北京的空气质量达标要等到2030年。中国其他城市也面临着类似的挑战。That#39;s grim news. But if you can#39;t avoid the air pollution, at least you can try and avoid the times when it#39;s at its worst. Last week, China Real Time did the math to figure out the best months for air quality in Beijing and Shanghai. This week, we#39;ve crunched more numbers to determine the worst (and best) hours for residents to be outdoors in both cities.这是个不幸的消息。但如果你无法避免空气污染,至少你可以尝试躲开污染最严重的时期。上周,《中国实时报》栏目(China Real Time)算出了北京和上海空气质量最佳的月份。本周,我们调用了更多数据,确定了两个城市居民户外活动的最糟(以及最好)的时段。The results show that Beijing#39;s air improves during the day, but gets worse at night. In Beijing, air quality is at its best between noon and 4 p.m., when the average concentration of PM2.5 -- particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in length -- falls to around 87 micrograms per cubic meter. By contrast, between 7 p.m. and 3 a.m., PM2.5 levels rise to as high as 113 micrograms per cubic meter.计算结果显示,北京的空气质量在白天会好转,晚上会恶化。在北京,空气质量最好的时间是中午到下午4点,平均PM2.5(直径小于2.5微米的颗粒物)浓度降至每立方米87微克。与之相比的是,下午7点到凌晨3点,PM2.5水平升至每立方米113微克之高。Shanghai#39;s air gets worse after rush hour. The city#39;s air is cleanest during the early morning and late afternoon, when PM2.5 levels fall to 53 micrograms per cubic meter or lower. After the morning and evening rush hour, PM2.5 levels rise to as high as 59 micrograms per cubic meter.上海空气质量在交通高峰期过后会下降。这个城市的空气是在大早上和临近傍晚最干净,PM2.5水平降至不超过每立方53微克。在早晚高峰过后,PM2.5水平会升至每立方米59微克。Why does Beijing#39;s air quality get worse at night? Antony Chen, an associate research professor at the Desert Research Institute in Nevada, notes that Beijing#39;s air quality is mainly influenced by the difference in temperature between night and day.北京的空气质量为什么会在夜间变差?内华达州沙漠研究所(Desert Research Institute)的副教授Antony Chen指出,北京的空气质量主要受到昼夜温差的影响。Mr. Chen says PM2.5 gets trapped in the cooler air near the surface in the evenings, which accounts for the higher concentrations at night. When the sun comes out, the air heats up and rises, which leads to lower concentrations in the day, he says.Chen说,傍晚的时候,接近地表的空气温度较低,PM2.5在这样的空气里无法扩散,这就是为什么在夜里PM2.5的浓度会更高。他说,等到太阳一出来,空气温度上升后上行,所以白天PM2.5的浓度较低。#39;The warm layer of air wants to go up, and the cold air wants to go down, and there basically becomes circulation, movement and turbulence,#39; Mr. Chen says.Chen说,暖空气会往上走,冷空气会向下走,由此形成对流、空气运动和湍流。By contrast, Shanghai#39;s temperature is more constant, thanks to its proximity to the ocean, says Mr. Chen. With fewer temperature swings during the day, he says, Shanghai#39;s air pollution patterns are more impacted by factors such as vehicle emissions.Chen说,相比之下,上海的昼夜温差因为近海的缘故变化较小。他说,由于白天上海的温度变化更小,所以当地空气污染模式受机动车尾气排放等因素的影响更大。Based on data from the U.S. State Department, the average PM2.5 concentration over a 24-hour period is about 99 micrograms per cubic meter in Beijing and 56 micrograms per cubic meter in Shanghai. That means Shanghai#39;s air is on average about 40% better than Beijing#39;s. (The U.S. State Department cautions that such data is not complete, as the ings come from a single monitoring station that was installed in Beijing in 2008 and in Shanghai in 2011.)根据美国国务院的数据,北京24小时PM2.5平均浓度大约为每立方米99微克,上海是56微克。这表明上海的空气质量平均而言比北京好40%。(美国国务院称,上述数据并不全面,因为数据只来自2008年在北京设立、2011年在上海设立的单一监测站。)But no matter the time of day, neither city has anything approaching clean air. Air quality in both Beijing and Shanghai falls far short of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency#39;s recommended PM2.5 limit of 35 micrograms per cubic meter for a 24-hour period. High concentrations of PM2.5 increases risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer, according to the World Health Organization.但无论是一天中的哪个时段,这两个城市的空气都算不上干净。美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)建议的24小时PM2.5均值上限为每立方米35微克,北京和上海的空气质量都差得远。根据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)的说法,高浓度PM2.5会增加罹患心血管、呼吸系统疾病以及肺癌的风险。 /201407/310820。

If you can hold your breath all the way to the bottom here, you are in a very small minority - this is Y-40 The Deep Joy and with a staggering depth of -40 metres it is the world#39;s deepest pool.能屏住呼吸游到一个普通的游泳池底部的人并不少,但能憋住气一直游到这个名为“Y-40 The Deep Joy”的游泳池底部的人却不多。它可是世界上最深的游泳池,深度达到40米。The incredible swim centre, designed by renowned architect Emanuele Boaretto, is located within the four-star Hotel Terme Millepini in Montegrotto Terme, Italy.这个不可思议的游泳中心,由著名设计师伊曼纽尔设计,位于意大利蒙泰格罗托泰尔梅的四星级酒店米勒皮尼泰梅酒店内。Operating since June, the pool has a diving height of a 12-storey building, or nine doubledecker buses placed on top of each other.Y-40的深度约为12层楼或9辆双层巴士叠放在一起的高度,今年6月开始对外营业。Wet suits aren#39;t required here as swimmers can enjoy a regular temperature of between 32-34°C.在这里游泳者不用穿紧身潜水衣,因为泳池内的水温会始终保持在32度到34度之间。There are several platforms, ranging from -1.3m, to -12m. The pool at the surface is 21m by 18m but it becomes a narrow well-like hole as the depths plummet straight down.在深度为1.3米和12米处分别设有平台。泳池的上表面长21米宽18米,但越往深处越窄,像一个垂直的深洞。Visitors are able to use the facilities for free diving and scuba diving, with underwater caves for cave diving beginners.在这里游客们可以使用相应的设施进行自由潜水或戴水肺潜水,另外还有供洞穴潜水新手使用的地下水洞。There is also a unique suspended underwater tunnel which is entirely transparent, so non-swimmers can experience the pool without getting wet.该泳池还设有一条独一无二的水下全透明隧道,不游泳的人也可以在这里体验“深深的喜悦”。There is a sunbathing deck with loungers on the roof, where swimmers can recover from their deep-diving experience.泳池的顶部,有一个供休闲的日光浴甲板,游泳者深潜之后可在这里休息。Nemo 33 in Brussels, Belgium, was the deepest indoor swimming pool in the world before Y-40 was completed.在Y-40建成之前,世界上最深的室内用泳池是比利时首都布鲁塞尔的nemo33。 /201410/334759。