原标题: 四川省韩式半永久化妆绣眉
Air pollution by sources ranging from cooking fires to auto fumes contributed to an estimated seven million deaths worldwide in 2012, the UN health agency has said.世界卫生组织表示,据估计由于油烟与汽车尾气引起的空气污染在2012年导致了全世界700万人死亡。;Air pollution, and we#39;re talking about both indoors and outdoors, is now the biggest environmental health problem, and it#39;s affecting everyone, both developed and developing countries,; said Maria Neira, the World Health Organisation#39;s public and environmental health chief.“空气污染,无论室内与室外的,都成为了当前最大的环境健康问题。它影响着每一个人,无论是发展中国家还是发达国家,”世界卫生组织公共环境健康主管Maria Neira说。Globally, pollution was linked to one death in eight in 2012, new WHO research found.世界卫生组织最新报告显示,2012年全球死去的每八个人中就有一名死因与污染有关。The biggest pollution-related killers were heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease and lung cancer.与污染相关的最大杀手是心脏病、中风、呼吸疾病和肺癌。The hardest-hit regions of the globe were what the WHO labels Southeast Asia, which includes India and Indonesia, and the Western Pacific, ranging from China and South Korea to Japan and the Philippines.世界卫生组织认为最严重的地区是东南亚,包括印度、印度尼西亚,还有西太平洋地区,从中国、韩国一直到日本、菲律宾。Together, they accounted for 5.9 million deaths.据统计,该地区死亡人数达到590万人。The global death toll included 4.3 million deaths due to indoor air pollution, chiefly caused by cooking over coal, wood and biomass stoves.全世界有430万人死于室内空气污染,主要来源为煤炉、木头燃烧和生物质炉灶。The toll from outdoor pollution was 3.7 million, with sources ranging from coal heating fires to diesel engines.全世界死于户外污染的有370万人,污染源为工业用煤和柴油机。Many people are exposed to both indoor and outdoor pollution, the WHO said, and due to that overlap the separate death toll attributed to the two sources cannot simply be added together, hence the figure of seven million deaths.世界卫生组织说,有很多人同时暴露在室内污染与室外污染下,由于各自的死亡人数有相互交叠的部分,因此并不能简单相加,因此得出的数据为700万人。The new figure is ;shocking and worrying;, Ms Neira told reporters.Neira女士告诉记者,这个数字令人“震惊且忧虑”。When it last released an estimate for deaths related to air pollution, in 2008, the agency had put the figure related to outdoor pollution at 1.3 million, while the number blamed on indoor pollution was 1.9 million.2008年世界卫生组织发布空气污染导致的死亡人数预测数据时,室外污染死亡人数为130万,而室内污染死亡人数为190万人。But a change in research methods makes comparison difficult between the 2008 estimate and the 2012 figures, Neira said.Neira说由于调查方法的改变,难以对2008年与2012年的数据进行比对。In the past, for example, the WHO did not take into account the overlap between exposure to both forms, and only assessed urban pollution.例如,以前世界卫生组织并没有考虑室内室外交叉的部分,并且只统计了城市污染的部分。Satellite imagery has made it easier to assess rural pollution, and new knowledge about the health impact of exposure has enabled a better count.卫星图像使调查乡村的污染变得更加容易,并且关于影响健康的风险因素的新知识让我们可以做一个更好的统计。;The risks from air pollution are now far greater than previously thought or understood, particularly for heart disease and strokes,; said Neira.“空气污染的危害远远超过以前我们所知道的,尤其是对于心脏病与中风。”Neira说。;Few risks have a greater impact on global health today than air pollution. The evidence signals the need for concerted action to clean up the air we all breathe.;“没有什么会比空气污染给全球健康带来更大的危害。这些据说明我们必须采取行动净化我们的空气。”According to the WHO, some 2.9 billion people in poor nations live in homes that use fires as their principle method of cooking and heating.根据世界卫生组织调查,贫困国家中大概有29亿人在家里依旧使用柴火做饭取暖。Carlos Dora, the WHO#39;s public and environmental health coordinator, said that turned homes into ;combustion chambers;.WHO公共环境健康协调员Carlos Dora说这样会使家变成“燃烧的套房”。Simple measures to stem the impact include so-called ;clean cook stoves;, which are a low-tech option, as well as improved ventilation, he said.改善这种情况的简单办法是所谓的“清洁灶”,这是一种低科技含量的选择,也就是改进的通风设备,他说。Countries also need to rethink policies, Mr Dora said, pointing to the impact in the developed world of a shift to cleaner power sources, more efficient management of energy demand, and technical strides in the auto industry.Dora先生说各国需要反思各自的政策,他指出了发达国家转变为使用清洁的动力能源,对能源需求进行更高效的管理,以及自动工业技术的提升的影响。He also said transport policies needed a shake-up.他说运输政策也需要巨大的改变。With air pollution having sparked a recent scare in France, leading to restrictions on car use and the temporary scrapping of public transport fees in Paris, Mr Dora said such measures could be applied in the longer term.由于空气污染在法国近期引发的恐慌,导致汽车限行与巴黎公共运输费用的暂时废除,他说这些措施可以长久地实施。;You can#39;t buy clean air in a bottle,; he said.“你买不到一瓶干净的空气。”他说。;The air is a shared resource. In order to breathe clean air, we have to have interventions in the areas that pollute air.;“空气是共有的资源。为了呼吸干净的空气,我们需要对污染空气的地区采取措施。The WHO said it planned by the end of this year to release a ranking of the world#39;s 1,600 most polluted cities.世界卫生组织说计划在今年年底发布全球污染最严重的1600个城市名单。 /201404/284967

Last May, one of South Korea#39;s largest dairy companies, Namyang, came under fire for corporate malpractice. A company official was caught on tape threatening a small distributor into buying expired products that he couldn#39;t afford. The issue turned into a modern-day version of David and Goliath. The dairy giant issued an apology and paid a fine, but it continues to face widesp boycotts and protests.去年五月,韩国最大的乳业公司之一南阳乳业(Namyang)因为不当行为而遭到谴责。公司一位管理人员威胁一位小经销商购买他无力承担的过期产品,结果通话录音被曝光。这起事件演变成了现代版的大卫与歌利亚。最终,南阳乳业公司道歉并付了罚款,但至今依然面临广泛的抵制和抗议。Heekyung Jo Min will be the first to tell you that corporate misconduct is still quite common in South Korea. As an executive vice president for CJ Corporation, the 14th-largest Korean conglomerate, Min says that the country#39;s hierarchal system can sometimes lead to abuses of power or bad behavior in the name of expanding profits and pleasing higher-ups.闵赵熙京表示,公司不当行为在韩国仍然非常普遍。她是第一个公开讨论这一现状的人。闵是韩国排在第14位的企业集团希杰集团(CJ Corporation)执行副总裁。她表示,韩国的等级制度有时候会导致滥用职权,或以增加利润和取悦上司为借口的不良行为。Min is championing a profound shift in Korean corporate culture. By focusing on creating value for all stakeholders -- not just shareholders , Min believes disasters like Namyang#39;s can be avoided in the future.闵正在推动韩国公司文化进行一次意义深远的转变——即专注于为所有利益相关者创造价值,而不仅仅是股东。闵相信,未来,类似于南阳乳业遭遇的灾难是可以避免的。;The shareholders alone are not the main players of the economy,; Min says. ;There are more people involved than just shareholders, like our employees, our customers, and the communities that we serve.;闵说:“股东并不是经济活动中的主要角色。除了股东,一家公司还会涉及许多人,例如员工、客户和我们务的社区等。”Min says CJ is the first company to launch a department committed to ;Common Shared Value; -- or CSV -- in Korea, spearheading a call to action for sustainable business management. As the head of CJ#39;s Global CSV program, Min, who spoke with Fortune while in New York this week for a shared value summit, is working with the company#39;s divisions (which include the largest food manufacturer and the largest home shopping network in Korea) to focus not only on driving profits for shareholders, but also on how business practices can impact customers and the surrounding communities.闵表示,希杰集团在韩国开创了先河,专门成立了一个致力于“创造共享价值”(CSV)的部门。作为希杰集团全球共享价值计划的负责人,闵在上周于纽约召开的共享价值峰会上接受了《财富》杂志(Fortune)的采访。她目前正在与公司其他部门合作(包括韩国最大的食品生产商和最大的家庭购物网络),在为股东创造利润的同时,也将公司经营对消费者与周围社区的影响作为工作重点。The term CSV was coined in 2011 by Harvard professors Michael Porter and Mark Kramer to encourage companies to think more about the impact their businesses have on society at large. The professors point out that companies may be prospering in the stock market, but can still be to blame for major social, environment, and economic problems.2011年,哈佛大学(Harvard)教授迈克尔o波特与马克o克雷默提出了“创造共享价值”这一理念,旨在鼓励公司更多考虑他们对整个社会的影响。两位教授指出,一家公司可能在股票市场风光无限,但却会因为社会、环境和经济问题而备受诟病。Unlike corporate social responsibility, CSV is about creating new business opportunities that can strengthen a company#39;s competitive positioning, according to Min.闵认为,不同于公司的社会责任,CSV的目的是创造能够增强公司竞争优势的新商业机遇。;It not just teaching people to fish, but it is making a fisherman, and then we all catch more fish together,; says Min. ;With corporate social responsibility, you just give away the fish.;闵说:“这种理念是授人以渔,而非授人以鱼,之后所有人便可以一起享受钓鱼的乐趣。而公司的社会责任则属于后者。”In just one year since launching the CSV program, CJ has aly seen a tangible impact on its bottom line, she says. A partnership with small and medium-sized food businesses, for example, has increased CJ#39;s product offerings while supporting local farmers and creating new job opportunities. CJ is also working on rural development in Vietnam where it sources many agricultural products like chili peppers. By providing communities with more advanced farming technologies as well as building schools and proper bathrooms, Min forecasts that local farmers will be roughly 200% more productive next year.她表示,CSV计划启动仅仅一年,希杰集团就体会到了这项计划对公司财务状况的实质影响。例如,与中小型食品公司的合作不仅增加了希杰集团的产品类别,同时也扶持了当地农民,创造了更多的就业机会。此外,希杰集团同样致力于越南的农村发展。希捷集团在越南采购农产品,如辣椒等。通过为社区提供更先进的农业技术,以及兴建学校和卫生间。闵预计,明年,当地农民的工作效率将提高约200%。CJ is also working internally to combat Korea#39;s notoriously unsustainable work culture for women. If a woman leaves her job for more than a year to start a family or any other reason, many Korean corporations will not allow her to even take the entrance exam to get back into the workforce. As a result, Korea#39;s labor force participation rate for women is much lower than similar-sized economies. To tackle this problem, CJ created a ;returnship; program targeted at women who have been out of work for two or more years. The program includes flexible hours, mentoring, and special training from managers.众所周知,韩国公司有一种针对女性的不合理的工作文化。希杰集团正在努力打破这种传统。如果女性因为成立新家庭或其他任何原因离开工作超过一年时间,许多韩国公司会拒绝她重新回到工作岗位,连参加额外考试的机会也没有。结果导致韩国女性劳动力参与率远远低于规模类似的其他经济体。为了解决这个问题,希杰集团针对离开工作两年或以上的女性启动了“回归”计划。这项计划包括灵活的工作时间,导师指导和管理人员的特殊培训。Min acknowledges that CJ and her peer conglomerates have a long way to go to match CSV effort she has seen outside of Korea. The Columbia Business School graduate recalls going to leadership conferences in the mid-2000s and being impressed by initiatives by Pfizer (PFE), Johnson amp; Johnson (JNJ), and others to ensure the surrounding communities and employees benefits from the companies#39; success. As South Korea plays catch-up, Min says it#39;s important that corporations keep in mind the importance of balance.闵承认,要达到其他国家的企业在CSV方面的成绩,希杰集团和其他韩国企业集团还有更长的路要走。哥伦比亚商学院(Columbia Business School)毕业的闵回忆称,她2000年代中期参加领导力会议时,辉瑞(Pfizer)、强生(Johnson amp; Johnson)等公司为确保周边社区与员工能从公司的成功中获益时所采取的举措给她留下了深刻印象。闵表示,韩国公司要迎头赶上,必须牢记平衡的重要性,这一点非常重要。;It used to be that I would proudly say that I never left the office before 10:30 at night. But we don#39;t have to work our employees that way anymore,; Min says with a laugh. ;It is a constant balance, and if you want to have common shared value, you cannot do it alone. You have to involve the community and your employees.;闵笑着说:“之前,我会非常骄傲地说,我从来没有在晚上十点半之前离开过办公室。但现在我们不需要员工这么做。这是一种持续的平衡,如果你想创造共享价值,不能只靠自己。必须调动社区和员工共同参与进来。” /201405/300115

What goes up must come down, and sometimes vice versa--just look at S. Pellegrino Asia#39;s 50 Best Restaurants.何谓风水轮流转?看看圣培露(S. Pellegrino)亚洲50最佳餐厅榜单吧。Nahm, Australian chef David Thompson#39;s Bangkok restaurant that serves cuisine based on Thai memorial-book recipes, nudged Les Creations de Narisawa in Tokyo from the top of the Asia#39;s 50 Best Restaurants 2014 list, announced Monday night in Singapore. Last year, Nahm ranked No. 3 on the list, and its new position means Narisawa has dropped to second place.Nahm是澳大利亚大厨汤普森(David Thompson)在曼谷开设的餐厅,供应基于经典泰国传统食谱制作的美食。在周一晚间新加坡出炉的2014年亚洲50最佳餐厅榜单上,Nahm超过了东京的Les Creations de Narisawa,升至榜首位置。去年Nahm在该榜单上位列第三,这次它荣膺榜首意味着Narisawa已退居次席。#39;I actually placed bets that I would go down in the rankings, and I lost, #39; said Mr. Thompson, speaking by phone from a chef#39;s lunch Tuesday. #39;I was absolutely astonished and surprised. I think there were a lot of other restaurants in Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and other parts of the region that are as good as ours if not better.#39;汤普森周二在一场大厨特色午膳上通过电话表示:“我本来打赌自己餐厅的排名将下降,但我输了。”他说,自己完全呆掉了,实在太意外了。他原本认为新加坡、香港、日本和亚洲其他地区的许多其他餐厅至少和自己的餐厅一样好。Restaurants in Singapore and Thailand did well on this year#39;s list, with Thailand grabbing two of the three top spots, and Southeast Asia as a whole appearing 14 times on the list of 50 restaurants.新加坡和泰国的餐厅在今年的榜单上有出色表现。泰国餐厅在前三位中占据两席。整体来看,东南亚餐厅在亚洲50最佳餐厅中获得了14席。Molecular Indian restaurant Gaggan in Bangkok shot to No. 3 on the list, up seven spots from its 10th-place ranking last year. French restaurant Amber in Hong Kong retained its No. 4 position, and Nihonryori RyuGin in Tokyo came in at No. 5, down from No. 2.在曼谷提供分子料理的印度餐厅Gaggan上升了七位,排名从去年的第十跃升至第三。香港的法国餐厅Amber仍排在第四,东京日料餐厅龙吟(Nihonryori RyuGin)从第二降至第五。The regional list, in its second year, is derived from the global S. Pellegrino World#39;s 50 Best Restaurants list, released annually since its launch 12 years ago. Restaurants are voted on by more than 900 people across the world--an anonymous mix of chefs and restaurateurs, food writers and critics, and food experts or #39;well-traveled gastronomes,#39; according to William Drew, group editor for Asia#39;s 50 Best Restaurants. Voters are rotated annually, with about a third changed every year.这是圣培露第二年发布亚洲最佳餐厅榜单,从12年前开始 培露就每年发布全球50最佳餐厅(World#39;s 50 Best Restaurants)榜单。亚洲50最佳餐厅榜单的小组编辑德鲁(William Drew)说,入围餐厅由全球900多人通过不记名投票产生,这些人当中有厨师、餐厅老板、美食作家和批评家以及游历甚广的“吃货”。投票者会循环更迭,每年大约有三分之一的人会被换掉。Though Thailand ranked at the top of the list, the country that racked up the most mentions was China, including Hong Kong and Macau, home to 16 of the 50 restaurants.虽然泰国位列亚洲榜单第一,但上榜次数最多的要属中国(包括香港和)。亚洲50最佳餐厅里有16家位于中国。Hong Kong alone counted nine. In mainland China, Shanghai had the most entries, with French chef Paul Pairet#39;s Ultraviolet and Mr amp; Mrs Bund at Nos. 8 and 11, respectively. No restaurants in Beijing were included.单香港一地就占了九席。在中国内地,上海入榜次数最多,其中法国厨师Paul Pairet开办的Ultraviolet和Mr amp; Mrs Bund分列第八和第11位。北京餐厅无一上榜。Japan was second with 10 restaurants in the top 50, ahead of Singapore#39;s eight. Singapore#39;s collection includes two in the top 10: Restaurant Andr嗷 (No. 6) and Waku Ghin (No. 7). Iggy#39;s, No. 9 last year, slipped to No. 12.日本是上榜次数第二高的国家,有10家餐厅入选。其次是新加坡,有八家餐厅入选,且两家入围前10名,分别是排名第六的Restaurant Andre和第七的Waku Ghin。Iggy#39;s从去年的第九滑落至第12。There were plenty of newcomers this year, and more regional diversity than on the inaugural list. Last year, restaurants in South Korea were absent--a slight explored by our sister blog Korea Real Time--but this year Seoul restaurant Jungsik, which serves #39;new Korean fine dining,#39; made its debut at No. 20, the highest ranking for new entry. Other new names include Tokyo#39;s Tippling Club (No. 23), Issaya Siamese Club (No. 31) in Bangkok and Bali#39;s Sarong (No. 47).相比去年的榜单,今年有很多新上榜餐厅,同时也呈现出了更丰富的地区多样性。去年,韩国无一餐厅入选,《华尔街日报》的“韩国实时报”(Korea Real Time)栏目曾对此进行过报道。但今年,主打“新浪潮韩国菜肴”的首尔餐厅Jungsik以第20名的成绩首次上榜,这是“初来者”入围该榜单的最好成绩。此外,新加坡的Tippling Club、曼谷的Issaya Siamese Club和巴厘岛的Sarong等也都是首次入围,排名分别为第23名、第31名和第47名。Mr. Drew said that voters were offered #39;no criteria#39; for selection, but were simply asked to name their top seven restaurants in the world. #39;Everyone#39;s idea of what makes a great restaurant is different,#39; he said, noting that casual restaurants like Yardbird and Sarong are listed alongside #39;gilded temples of gastronomy.#39;德鲁说,投票者在选择时并无任何标准,只需选出他们认为世界上最棒的七家餐厅。他说,每个人都有关于好餐厅的不同看法。他指出,Yardbird和Sarong等寻常餐厅与那些被誉为“美食 殿”的餐厅一道上榜。So, how meaningful is the list?如此说来,这个榜单有多大意义呢?#39;One thing to remember is there are only 50 restaurants listed, and 50 is a very small number,#39; said Mr. Drew. #39;It#39;s an inexact science, but we still believe it still creates a credible snapshot of great restaurants in the region.#39;德鲁说,别忘了一点,只有50家餐厅上榜,数量非常之小。他说:“虽然这个榜单不能算是十分精确,但我们仍相信它是亚洲最棒餐厅的可靠指南。”Below is the list of Southeast Asia#39;s mentions. For a full list, go to Scene Asia. We#39;d also like to hear your thoughts. What do you think of the rankings and which restaurants would you add? Leave your thoughts in the comments section.以下是东南亚上榜餐厅。要想查找榜单全部结果,请移步“风尚亚洲”。同时我们也很想知道您的看法。在您心里,这50佳餐厅的位次应是怎样的顺序?您希望添加哪些餐厅?请给我们留言。Nahm, Bangkok (+2) #1Nahm 曼谷 (升2位) 第1位Gaggan, Bangkok (+7) #3Gaggan 曼谷 (升7位) 第3位Restaurant Andr嗷, Singapore (-1) #6Restaurant Andre 新加坡 (降1位) 第6位Waku Ghin, Singapore (-4) #7Waku Ghin 新加坡 (降4位) 第7位Iggy#39;s, Singapore (-3) #12Iggy#39;s 新加坡 (降3位) 第12位Les Amis, Singapore (--) #14Les Amis 新加坡 (持平) 第14位Jaan, Singapore (+5) #17Jaan 新加坡 (升5位) 第17位Sra Bua By Kiin Kiin, Bangkok (+9) #21Sra Bua By Kiin Kiin 曼谷 (升9位) 第21位Bo Lan, Bangkok (+8) #28Bo Lan 曼谷 (升8位) 第28位Issaya Siamese Club, Bangkok (New) #31Issaya Siamese Club 曼谷 (新上榜) 第31位Shinji By Kanesaka, Singapore (-3) #35Shinji By Kanesaka 新加坡 (降3位) 第35位Eat Me, Bangkok (-18) #37Eat Me 曼谷 (降18位) 第37位Imperial Treasure Super Peking Duck, Singapore (+9) #40御宝至尊烤鸭店 新加坡 (升9位) 第40位Sarong, Bali, Indonesia (New) #46Sarong 印尼巴厘岛 (新上榜) 第46位 /201402/277637Origins of Inebriation Revealed揭示醉酒的起源This cuneiform text dates back to the 6th year ofprince Lugalanda who ruled about 2370 B.C. in southern Mesopotamia.It is an administrative document concerning deliveries of three sorts of beer to different recipients 这种楔形文字的历史可以追溯到公元前2370年左右,王子卢加尔安达在美索不达米亚南部统治的第六年。它是一种行政文书,将三种啤酒传递到不同的人手中。In prehistoric Eurasia,drugs and alcohol were originally reserved for ritual ceremonies, and weren#39;tused merely to satisfy hedonistic motives, a new study suggests. What#39;s more,given the sacred role of the substances, their use was likely highly regulatedand only available to elite citizens.一项新的研究表明,在史前的欧亚大陆时期,毒品和酒精的最初用于宗教仪式,而不是仅用来满足人们享乐。更重要的是,考虑到这些物质神圣的角色,它们的使用几乎是受到高度控制的,仅供给于杰出公民。Many Eurasian cultures are known to have anancient history with psychoactive substances, as evidenced by early writtendocuments. The Greek historian Herodotus, for example, once described theScythians#39; (Iranian equestrian tribes) post-funeral purification ceremonyinvolving hemp, which dates back to the fifth century B.C.据早期的书面文件明,许多欧亚文化是已公认拥有一种精神活性物质的古代历史。例如,希腊历史学家希罗多德曾经描述斯基泰(伊朗马术部落)葬礼的净化仪式中涉及大麻,而这可追溯到公元前第五世纪。But written records aren#39;t the onlyindication of early drug and alcohol use.但是文字记录并不是早期使用药物和酒精的唯一痕迹。;It is generally thought thatmind-altering substances, or at least drugs, are a modern-day issue, but if welook at the archaeological record of prehistoric Europe, there are many datasupporting their consumption,; said study author Elisa Guerra-Doce, aprehistory expert at the University of Valladolid in Spain. ;Apart fromthe presence of macrofossil remains of plants with these [mind-altering]properties, there are artistic depictions of opium poppies, for instance, andsome designs in megalithic tombs may have been inspired by altered states ofconsciousness.;“人们普遍认为,改变意识的物质,或者说是药物,是一个现代议题,但如果我们看看欧洲史前考古记录,这儿有很多数据可以明他们的假设,”该研究的作者西班牙巴利亚多利德大学史前史专家艾丽莎·格拉-多西说道,“除了存在改变意识的植物化石,还有对罂粟的艺术描绘,例如,巨石墓里的一些设计可能会激发人们改变意识形态。”Despite numerous indications,archaeologists have largely overlooked the use of mind-altering substances inEurasian prehistory. So Guerra-Doce decided to sort through the scarce andscattered information in the scientific literature, in hopes of gaining abetter understanding of the history and context of ancient drug and alcoholuse.尽管有许多迹象表明,考古学家已经在很大程度上忽略了欧亚史前使用改变思想的物质。所以格拉-多西决定整理科学文献中稀少且分散的信息,以更好地理解历史和古老药物酒精使用的文本信息。She reviewed four lines of evidence:macrofossil remains of psychoactive plants, residues from fermented alcoholicdrinks, psychoactive alkaloids (chemical compounds) on artifacts and skeletalremains, and artistic depictions of psychoactive plants and drinking scenes.她回顾了四条据:含有精神活性植物的大化石,发酵的酒精饮料残留物,文物和遗骨的活性生物碱(化合物)以及精神活性植物和饮用场景的艺术描写。Widesp use广泛使用In prehistoric sites throughout Europe, archaeologists have found the remains of numerouspsychoactive plant and fungi species, including opium poppy, deadly nightshade,hallucinogenic mushrooms and ergot fungus. However, it#39;s not always possible todetermine how people used the substances, if they did at all.在整个欧洲的史前遗址上,考古学家已经发现许多精神活性植物和真菌物种的遗址,包括鸦片罂粟,颠茄,致幻蘑菇和麦角菌。然而,如果人们都使用这种物质,决定人们使用这些物质的可能性并不大。For instance, at a Neanderthal burial caveat Shanidar, in northern Iraqdating to around 60,000 B.C., researchers discovered the remains of manymedical plant species, suggesting the grave belonged to a shaman. But otherscientists argue that a gerbil-like rodent called the Persian jird may havebrought the plants into the cave after the Neanderthal there had died.例如,追溯到公元前60000年前,在伊拉克北部的一个尼安德特人沙尼达尔墓穴中,研究人员发现,许多药用植物的遗骸,而这坟墓属于一个萨满的。但是其他科学家认为,一种长爪沙鼠类的啮齿类动物,名叫波斯沙鼠可能在尼安德特人死了后,将植物带进洞穴。Yet many archaeobotanical finds providestrong evidence for the prehistoric use of mind-altering substances. Inparticular, at an archaeological site near Bucharest, Romania,scientists found charred Cannabis seeds from plants in some tombs. The mainpsychoactive compound of marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), which is mostabundant in the female plants (Cannabis plants are typically either male orfemale, with male plants producing pollen that pollinates the seed-producingflowers of the female plant).;The presence of burnt seeds in these tombsproves that the prehistoric societies of eastern Europe were aware of this, andconsequently, they burnt female plants,; Guerra-Doce told Live Science.然而许多大型植物剂被发现并提供了强有力的据,明在史前时期人们使用过改变意识的物质。特别是,在罗马尼亚布加勒斯特附近的一个考古遗址上,科学家们在一些坟墓里发现了烧焦的大麻种子植物。大麻的主要活性化合物是四氢大麻酚(THC),这是最丰富的雌性植物(大麻植物通常是雄性或雌性,与雄性植物产生花粉,授粉的种子生产雌性花植物),“在这些墓葬中存在的烧焦种子明了东欧的史前社会已经意识到这一点,因此,他们燃烧雌性植物,”格拉-多西对生活科学说道。Alcoholic residues suggest many prehistoricEurasians drank fruit wines, mead, beer (from barley and wheat) and fermenteddrinks made from dairy products.酒精残留物暗示了许多史前欧亚的水果酒,蜂蜜酒,啤酒(大麦和小麦)和发酵饮料都产自于乳制品。The discovery of alcoholic fermentationappears to date back to about 7000 B.C. in China. By 5000 B.C., people in theZagros Mountains of northwestern Iran drank wine instilled with pineresin (for its preservative or medicinal properties). And at a site insoutheastern Armeniadating to 4000 B.C., scientists unearthed a fully equipped winery — they thinkthe wine was made for mortuary practices, considering there were 20 burialgraves, which contained drinking cups, next to the winemaking facility.在中国酒精发酵的发现原理可追溯到大约公元前7000年前。公元前5000年,在伊朗西北部的扎格罗斯山脉的人们在喝酒时逐渐滴入松树树脂(以达到防腐剂或药用性能的效果)。追溯到公元前4000年,在亚美尼亚东南部的一地区,科学家发现一个设备齐全的酒厂——他们认为酒是用来墓葬的,因为酿酒厂有20座葬墓群,坟墓里都有酒杯。Importantly, though some pottery fragmentscontaining residues of beer and wine come from settlements, most actually comefrom burial sites. ;Many tombs have provided traces of alcoholic drinksand drugs,; Guerra-Doce said. ;I think these substances were used toaid in communication with the spirit world.;重要的是,尽管一些瓷器碎片含有殖民地啤酒和葡萄酒的残留物,然而,大多数的残留物来自墓地。“许多坟墓留有酒精饮料和药物的遗迹,”格拉-多西说,”我认为这些物质是用来帮助精神世界交流的。”Some artistic representations also hint atceremonial drug and alcohol use in prehistory. One of the most revealing itemsmay be a 30-inch-tall (76 centimeters) terracotta figurineknown as the;Poppy Goddess.; The figurine, found in an almost 3000-year-old cultchamber in Crete, depicts a bare-breastedwoman with upraised arms and a head bearing three movable hairpins shaped likepoppy capsules. Certain features of the capsules suggest how opium may havebeen extracted, and the figurine displays a serene facial expression, whichsome experts interpret as depicting a trancelike state gained from inhalingopium fumes.一些艺术再现也暗示了史前时期药物和酒精用于礼仪场合。一个最明显的项目可能是一个30英寸(76厘米)高的陶瓦小雕像,被誉为“罂粟女神。”这个小塑像发现于克里特岛(希腊)的祭祀场所,已有大约3000年得历史,描绘了一个坦胸露乳的女人,她高举双手,头上插了三根像罂粟壳似的可移动簪子。胶囊的某些功能暗示了鸦片可能已经被提取,而雕像显示了一个安详的表情,一些专家解释为这是鸦片烟吸入后的恍惚状态。Only for the elite?只面向精英?Guerra-Doce#39;s analysis further suggeststhat psychoactive substances may have been reserved for the elite. ;Themain evidence to support that idea is the archaeological contexts where theyhave been found: tombs of high-status individuals and restricted ceremonialplaces,; she said.格拉-多西的分析进一步表明,精神活性物质可能是给精英保留的。” 持这个想法的主要据来是考古信息,他们已经发现:高官的坟墓和限制仪式的地方,”她说。For example, at a Bronze Age cemetery insoutheastern Spain,archaeologists have found psychoactive alkaloids of opiates in tombs of theupper class. Similarly, a luxurious tomb in another area of Spain containedevidence of the hallucinogenic alkaloid hyoscyamine, which comes from thenightshade family of plants.例如,在西班牙东南部的一个青铜时代墓地,考古学家在上层阶级的坟墓里发现的阿片类药物活性生物碱。同样,在另一个地区的西班牙豪华墓地中发现了致幻生物碱莨菪碱的据,而这些碱属于茄科植物。Alcohol also seems to have been mainly forthe upper class. One of the most impressive examples comes from the so-calledHochdorf Chieftain#39;s Grave in Germany— a Celtic burial chamber for a 40-year-old man that dates to around 530 B.C.In the princely tomb, researchers found an enormous bronze cauldron from Greece thatcontained 350 liters (92 gallons) of mead.酒精也似乎是主要为上层阶级务的。其中最引人注目的例子是来自所谓的侯赫多尔夫的酋长的坟墓---追溯到公元前530年左右,一个40岁凯尔特男子的墓室。在王侯墓前,研究人员发现了一个巨大的希腊青铜鼎,其含有350公升(92加仑)的酒。;I think that prior to a large-scaleproduction, [alcoholic drinks] were reserved for special events, and theyplayed a similar role as drug plants,; Guerra-Doce said.After large-scaleproduction became possible, alcohol likely became available to many people (notjust elites), and its use shifted from ritualistic to hedonistic in nature, sheadded.“我认为,大规模生产之前,[酒被保留用于特殊事件,植物药也发挥了类似的作用,”格拉-多西说。在大规模生产成为可能时,酒精可能提供给许多人(不只是精英),其用途在性质上说是从仪式到享乐主义,她补充说道。Drug plants, on the other hand, were nevercultivated on a large scale. And though they were also eventually consumed forhedonistic purposes, this use is difficult to observe in the archaeological record,Guerra-Doce said. ;Interestingly, the common names of some of these plantsrefer to madness, to evil spirits, to harmful effects, so I think a taboo wasimposed in order to avoid their use for hedonistic purposes,; shesaid.另一方面,植物药并没有一个大规模栽培。虽然他们也最终是达到享乐主义的目的,但是这是很难在考古记录中发现的,格拉-多西说。“有趣的是,这些植物中的一些的共同名字指的是疯狂行为,魔鬼精神,有害影响,所以我认为一个禁忌是用来避免达到享乐目的的,”她说。 /201407/310803

1) This is how you fit seven people into a five-person car进五人车的方法A family of seven was preparing to head from Qinghai Province back to their hometown in Dali County, Shanxi Province for a funeral but the train tickets were sold out. With no other option, they opted to drive their own taxi instead. When the car was stopped by traffic police on January 13, 2013, the officers discovered two nine-year-old children curled up in the trunk.一个七口之家准备从青海回到陕西大荔县参加葬礼,但火车票早已售罄。他们别无他法只能选择开他们自己的出租车启程。当车在2013年1月13日被交警拦下时,警官在后备箱内发现两个九岁的孩子蜷缩在里面。 /201401/272497(CNN) -- If you are a woman, you#39;ve likely experienced the creepy, disrespectful and sometimes scary way some men treat you as you walk down the street -- lewd looks, unwanted comments, compliments about your body, elongated necks craning to see your backside, catcalls, even being followed.(CNN) --作为女人,在走在大街上时,你很可能经历过男人的这些恶心的、无礼的,有时甚至是可怕的对待,比如说色眯眯的注视,评头论足,恭维你的身材或容貌,伸长脖子看你的背面,吹口哨,甚至是跟踪你。It can be very hard to explain why catcalls and unwanted comments amount to harassment. Thankfully, there#39;s a new online that drives it home. In it, a woman walks around Manhattan for 10 hours(a hidden camera is in front of her and she#39;s got microphones in each hand.) She#39;s harassed 108 times as she walks (silently) down the streets of the city. In two instances she#39;s followed; one of the guys walks beside her for over five minutes. It#39;s very eerie.很难说清楚为什么吹口哨和评头论足就等同于骚扰。谢天谢地,网上有一个新视频能说明这一切。在视频中,一个女人在曼哈顿的大街上走了10个小时,她的前面有一个隐藏起来的摄像机,双手都带有麦克风。在静静地走过这个城市的街道时,她受到了108次骚扰。她两次被跟踪;其中一个家伙跟了她超过5分钟。这太可怕了。It#39;s a very sobering and enlightening experience to watch the barrage of harassment happen. And sadly, since so many of you believe that women provoke violence and even rape based on how they dress -- get this, the woman in the is wearing a plain T-shirt and jeans. There#39;s no cleavage or midriff or bare leg showing -- she#39;s just a gal walking down the street.看着这些骚扰接二连三地发生,不仅令人不禁恍然大悟。令人悲哀的是,你们中的很多人认为女人招致暴力甚至是强暴,是因为她们穿的太少,看看这个,视频中的女人穿着普通的T恤和牛仔裤。没有露乳沟,没有露肚脐,没有露大腿,她只是一个走在大街上的姑娘。The is compelling, particularly for women. It is uncomfortable to be harassed like this walking down the street, and yes, harassment is exactly what it is. In fact, in many states, it#39;s also illegal.这个视频是振聋发聩的,特别是对女性来说。走在大街上时,像这样被骚扰是令人不舒的,是的,这就是骚扰。事实上,在很多州,这也是非法的。For a long time, I didn#39;t see it that way. Maybe it#39;s because I make a living giving keynotes on leadership and at 45 have grown to be a very confident, extroverted person. Every time a man would say ;Hey Beautiful; to me, I#39;d just look him straight in the eyes, shoot a smile and shout back ;Yo what#39;s up; -- which works like a charm, de-sexualizes the whole thing, keeps it Midwestern friendly while leaving the guy speechless that I asserted myself.很长时间以来,其实我认为这没什么大不了的。这也可能是因为我经常给领导阶层做主题报告,并且我已经45岁了,已经变成一个足够自信、性格外向的人。每次有男人对我说“嘿,美女”时,我只是直视着他的眼睛,露出微笑,回敬一句“嗨,怎么了”,立马将难题化解于无形,保持中西部风格的友好,摒除其中的性别成分,同时我敢保能让那个家伙无话可说。But my opinion about catcalls changed when I saw it happen to my daughter. She#39;s a beautiful girl, and just 15. A few weeks ago, we were walking in Boston -- she was in jeans, LL Bean boots and a flannel shirt -- yet the majority of guys eyed her head to toe and about half of them turned back to check out her butt. With every look, the momma bear in me started to get really angry. Sawyer, on the other hand, just got very quiet. When we crossed the street in front of a work site, she just stared at the ground.但当骚扰发生在我女儿身上时,我的想法发生了变化。她是个漂亮的姑娘,只有15岁。几周前,我们在波士顿街头散步,她穿着牛仔裤,LL Bean牌的靴子和法兰绒衬衫,然而大多数的男人都从头到脚地盯着她看,大约一半人还回头看她的臀部。母性使我真的要生气了,然而索伊却不发一言。当我们穿过街道,走到一处工地时,她只是紧盯着地面。My viewpoint changed that day. She didn#39;t want the attention; she just wanted to walk down the sidewalk and window shop. And, more importantly, she didn#39;t know how to handle it.我的观点在那天起改变了。她不想要那种关注;她只想走过人行道和商店的橱窗。并且,更重要的是,她不知道如何处理这一切。That#39;s the crux of it. When you catcall, the attention, the comments, the looks are unwanted and they can make a woman feel emotionally and physically uncomfortable. A woman (or a girl) walking down the street just wants to be left alone. She#39;s not interested in what you think about her body or her face. If she was, she#39;d ask you.这就是问题所在。当你们的吹口哨、注视、评头论足和你们的相貌不是姑娘们想要的时候,这些会使姑娘们在情感上和身体上不自在。一个女人(或女孩)只想自由自在地在大街上行走。她对你对她容貌和身材的看法不敢兴趣。如果她有兴趣,她会问你的。It#39;s hard for guys to understand this, particularly when the sex center of the male brain is 2.5 times larger than the female sex center in the brain. Guys will likely always have sex on the brain more than women do. And sexual desire and power is absolutely at the root of catcalls -- that#39;s why you hoot, holler, leer, jeer at a woman -- and it#39;s also why guys think there#39;s nothing wrong with it. Whether a woman or a girl can handle the attention isn#39;t relevant; guys shouldn#39;t be putting women and girls in a position in which they feel like they are getting eyed like a piece of meat.男人很难理解这些,特别是因为男性大脑中的性区是女性大脑里的性区的2.5倍。男性脑中想着上床的次数要比女性多得多,性需求和驱使绝对是吹口哨的根本原因,这就是你们对女性大声叫嚷、窥视、调戏的原因,并且这也是男人并不认为这有什么错的原因。女人或女性能否应对这些关注与他们无关;男人不应该像盯着一块肉一样,死死盯着女人和女孩。How should men approach women?男人应该如何接近女人?There#39;s a huge difference between harassing a woman on the street with catcalls and actually trying to have a conversation with her. In case you fellas do want to speak with a woman, her are a few rules:在大街上吹口哨骚扰一个姑娘与真正想与姑娘交谈有着巨大的差别,你们这些家伙如果真想和一个姑娘交谈,要遵循这些规则:1. Speak ;to; her, not ;at; her.“与”她说话,而不是“对着”她说话。Whistles, shouts, hoots, hollers, kissing and animal sounds may help you hail a cab, but if you do it to a woman you don#39;t know, it#39;s harassment.口哨、叫喊、高声大笑、嘟嘟囔囔、飞吻和学叫也许会帮助你叫辆出租车,如果你用在姑娘身上,你要知道这就是骚扰。2. Start a conversation ;with; her, not ;about; her.“和”她交谈,而不是对她“评头论足”。Talk about the weather, the day, the book she#39;s ing, because then it is a conversation. Do not talk about her hair, her smile, her outfit, her legs, her booty or her appearance, because that#39;s harassment.谈论天气、当天和她在看的书,因为这之后就会有更深的交流。不要谈论她的头发,她的微笑,她的装,她的腿,她的臀部或她的外貌,因为这是骚扰。3. If she walks away do not follow her.如果她走开了,不要跟踪她。If she ignores you, drops eye contact or keeps walking -- just leave her alone. If you start following her, you aren#39;t complimenting her, you are stalking her.如果她没有搭理你,不再看你或径直走开,就这样让她去吧。如果你还紧追不舍,那就不是在恭维她,而是在跟踪她。At the end of the day, if you want to connect with a woman, all you need to do is smile. There#39;s no need to say anything. That#39;s all it takes. Look her in the eyes and smile. She#39;ll likely smile back. That#39;s it. If she wants to say hello, I#39;m sure she will. If she doesn#39;t, just let her be.在白昼即将结束时,如果你想结识一位姑娘,只需微笑就够了。不用说一个字。看着她的眼睛,面带微笑。她有可能以微笑回报。就是这样。如果她想打招呼,我肯定她会的。如果她不想,就让她走吧。And speaking of eye contact, look at her eyes, because when you stare at her chest, her butt, her private area or do the top-to-bottom scan, it makes her feel extremely uncomfortable. Women walking on a sidewalk are not walking on a catwalk, and you#39;re not a judge on America#39;s Top Model, so stop acting like one.说起眼神交流,要看着她的眼睛,因为当你看着她的胸部,她的臀部,她的隐私部位或者从头到脚打量,会让她觉得极度不自在。走在人行道上的姑娘不是在走猫步,你不是在一个美国顶级模特,所有不要这么做。 /201411/340353

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