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阿克市做文眉绣眉多少钱邛崃市绣眉哪家好Man builds huge 30,000 litre aquarium in his living room so he can swim with his own fish在家自建超大鱼缸,只为与鱼儿畅游A man has built a giant 30,000 litre aquarium in his living room - which is so big he can get in the water and swim around with the fish .有哥们在家中客厅建了能容纳3万升水的超大鱼缸——只为自己能跳进去跟鱼儿同游。The wildlife enthusiast has built the coral reef tank to enjoy while he sits relaxing in the evenings, but admits that it requires quite a bit of technology and upkeep.这哥们是个野生动物爱好者。他自建这个珊瑚打底的鱼缸,想要晚上坐着看这些鱼来放松心情。但也承认不仅建它难,保养更难。Eli, from Haifa, Israel, explains: ;I started the aquarium in January 2012, so it will soon be five years old.来自以色列的Eli解释说:“我2012年1月就开始建造这个鱼缸,现在它已经问世快5年了。”;It is a 30,000 litre tank and when adding the sump [the aquarium#39;s filter system], it is close to 37,000 litres, or 10,000 gallons making it the largest home reef aquarium in Israel, and probably one of the largest in the world.;“这个鱼缸能容纳3万升水,加入排污装置后,总水量接近3万7千升,即1万加仑。现在应该是以色列最大的家用鱼缸,甚至有可能是世界最大的。”The aquarium is located in Eli#39;s living room and takes up a whole wall.鱼缸被安置在Eli家的客厅内,占了整整一面墙。A glass panel has been installed so he can look into the tank as he sits relaxing.最外面是玻璃透明面板,让Eli能轻松观赏他的鱼缸。The filtration system is located on the floor below the tank and requires a complex combination of technology to work efficiently.过滤系统安置在鱼缸下方地板中,需要许多复杂制造程序才能让它正常运转。Eli explains that he uses natural sunlight to keep the coral alive, and also has four 100W LEDs to be used during the evening.Eli说他用自然阳光来让珊瑚存活,晚上还要开4个100瓦的LED灯来保持缸内亮度可供观赏。He has now created a Facebook page and a YouTube channel to give fans more information on his incredible #39;water feature#39;.现在Eli开通了一个专门的Facebook主页和YouTube频道。以此渠道给粉丝提供更多有关他神奇鱼缸的更多信息。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201608/461628四川韩式半永久文眉 天水眼妆多少钱

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崇州市做纹绣价目表多少钱5.Jewish Male Menstruation5.犹太男人的月经A very weird element of medieval anti-Semitism was the notion that Jewish men menstruated. It can be traced back to Augustinus in the fifth century, who believed that Jewish men suffered ;the women#39;s disease.; The myth was inspired as much by the notion of women as impure and diseased as it was by hatred of Jews. The supposed loss of blood through menstruation was said to drive Jewish men to seek out the blood of Christian babies to compensate. This is the origin of the blood libel myth that plagued Europe for centuries.在中世纪的反犹太主义者们有一个很奇特的观念——犹太族的男人也会来月经!这件事情可以追溯到五世纪的奥古斯汀时代,那时候的人们相信男人也会经历所谓;女人的灾难;。由于人们对女性来月经这件事一直都不看好,再加上他们对犹太人的厌恶,犹太男人来月经这个传说就变得格外肮脏和变态。据说犹太男人会用基督教婴儿的血来补偿他们;经期失血;。这也是欧洲连续几世纪血液诽谤罪的来源。Later thinkers revised the idea, instead believing that Jewish men suffered from monthly bouts of rectal bleeding, to the extent that suffering from hemorrhoids could be used as evidence in an Inquisition trial of someone suspected of being secretly Jewish. According to Jewish historian Yusef Yurashalmi, Juan de Quinones de Benavente composed an entire treatise in the 17th century trying to prove the idea, implying that, ;Jewish males . . . are, in effect, no longer men but women, and the crime of deicide has been punished with castration.;后来研究者们更正了这一观点,比起相信犹太男人会经历月事,是否患有痔疮其实才是在宗教审判中明一个人是不是未记录在案的犹太人的据。犹太历史学家约瑟夫·约尔沙米和胡安·德·奇诺·德·贝纳万特在十七世纪做了一篇完整的关于这个问题的论文,在这篇文章里,他们极力明一种观点,暗示;事实上,受到割礼惩罚的已经不是犹太男人而是犹太女人和犯罪分子了。;4.Geh4.吉哈The ancient Zoroastrians associated menstruation with the evil god Ahriman. After the good god Ohrmazd, or Ahura Mazda, created the universe, Ahriman immediately attacked it, only to be knocked out for 3,000 years when Ohrmazd recited a sacred prayer. Various demons worked to bring their evil lord out of his stupor, which was finally accomplished by Geh (or Jeh or Jahi), the whore demoness, who promised to bring affliction and pestilence onto righteous men, oxen, and the entire pure world. Her words revived Ahriman, who kissed her on the forehead, and she became the first to be ;polluted; by the blood of menstruation, supposedly created to make humans unable to fight against the forces of evil.古时的琐罗亚斯德教徒曾将月经视作与恶神阿里曼相关的不洁之物。善神奥尔莫兹德(Ohrmazd,别称阿胡拉·马兹达Ahura Mazda)创世后,阿里曼闻声而动,立刻做出了破世之举,却不料奥尔莫兹德以神圣的经文作为咒语,将其捆缚了3000年。各路魔鬼相继赶来,想要唤醒这位被封印的;众魔之主;。最终,女魔头吉哈(Geh,别称Jeh、Jahi)立下诅咒:站在正义一方的人畜必将承受灾难与瘟疫的折磨,整个光明世界必将成为修罗场。她的这番恶语唤醒了阿里曼,为此,阿里曼在她额头上落下一吻,使之成为第一位被经血;污染;的生灵。据传,一旦被经血沾染,人类便会失去与邪恶对抗的力量。Another version of the myth has Geh becoming Ahriman#39;s chief ;whore demon,; meant to defile women, who will in turn defile men so they turn away from their proper work. Modern Zoroastrians consider menstrual blood to be nasu, or dead, decaying, polluting materials. Zoroastrian taboos insist upon strict separation of menstruating women: No one may approach within 1 meter (3 ft) of her, she must be handed food on metal plates, and she must avoid meat or invigorating food that may strengthen ;the fiend of pollution.;在另一个版本的传说中,吉哈是阿里曼手下头号;人尽可夫的女魔头;,被认为是肮脏的女人,同她接触过的男人都会被其玷污,偏离正途。现今的琐罗亚斯德教徒仍认为经血是肮脏、死亡及腐朽的介质。琐罗亚斯德教徒严格遵守;隔离经期的女性;的禁忌,即所有人都必须与来月经的女性保持1米(3步)的距离;她们的食物需用金属托盘盛放;她们不能接触肉类或新鲜的食物,因为这样会加速食物的腐烂。3.Pliny The Elder3.老普林尼First-century Roman author Pliny the Elder is responsible for a great number of menstruation myths that persisted in Europe throughout the Middle Ages. In his Natural History, Pliny wrote of the destructive power of menstrual blood, which he believed could wither fruit and crops, sour wine, dull mirrors, rust iron and bronze, blunt razors, kill bees, pollute purple fabrics, drive dogs insane, drive off storms and whirlwinds, and cause miscarriage in humans and horses. Having sex with a menstruating woman during a solar or lunar eclipse, he claimed, could lead to disease or death for the male partner. Menstrual blood did have some curative properties, though, curing gout, scrofula, skin growths, erysipelas, fevers, and bites from rabid dogs. It also served as protection against dark magical arts from the East.说起中世纪时流传于欧洲的那些关于月经的传说,恐怕大部分都是生于1世纪的罗马作家——老普林尼的杰作呢。在他撰写的《自然史》中,经血被赋予了毁灭性的力量。他认为经血会使蔬果坏死、庄稼枯萎、美酒变酸、明镜晦暗、钢铁生锈、剃刀变钝、蜜蜂死亡。经期的女性若是触碰织布,会把织布的色弄脏;若是抚摸犬类,会使其癫狂;若是坐船,会引来风浪;若是接触妇女和马匹,则会让妇和母马流产。他还声称,在日蚀或月蚀期间,男性如果与来月经的女性行房事,轻则恶病缠身,重则一命呜呼。当然,经血也有一定的医疗功效。它可以被用来治愈痛风、淋巴结核、皮肤增生、丹毒、伤风以及疯的咬伤。它还可以作为辟邪之物,防范来自东方的黑魔法艺术。After his exhaustive list of menstrual blood properties, Pliny luridly claimed: ;This is all it would be right for me to report and most of that I do not say without shame. That which is left is detestable and unspeakable, and so my work should hasten from the subject of man.; Pliny#39;s opinion on the whole matter can best be encapsulated by this passage: ;Hardly can there be found a thing more monstrous than is that flux and course of theirs.; This would all be frankly laughable if Pliny#39;s beliefs hadn#39;t stayed around for over a millennium before being questioned.在详尽地列出经血的特性后,普林尼又出惊人一语:;对我而言,说出这一切是正确的,大部分我还没有说出来的部分也毫无羞耻之处。剩下的不可言喻或是令人嫌恶的内容,也正是我需要加快进度研究男性课题的原因。;普林尼的中心思想可以概括成以下一句:;再难发现比她们体内流出的经血及其成因更丑陋的事情了。;即使未被人质疑,普林尼的这一信仰也并未百世流传,真真是可笑至极。2.Yanomami Seclusion2.亚诺玛米式隔离For the Yanomami people of northern Brazil, blood is a symbol of cosmic entropy. Menstruating women and killers who have ingested enemy blood are both known as unokai, which can be translated in the former case as ;the state of homicide of women.; Both warriors and pubescent girls are considered to have an excess of blood in their bodies and must be isolated and secluded with ritual in order to maintain safety.对于巴西北部的亚诺玛米人来说,血液象征着宇宙中的熵。处于经期时的女性和喝下对手鲜血的杀手都被称为;乌诺卡伊;,这个词指代前者即处于经期的女性时意为;女杀人犯;。他们认为战士和妙龄少女们身体内血量过多,为了保安全,必须举行仪式来隔离他们。On her first menstruation, a girl must inform her mother, who builds a seclusion hut using leaves from a particular shrub in order to hide the girl from the eyes of men. This is justified by an ancient legend telling of a young girl who was secluded on her first period while the community prepared a ritual feast for visiting guests. After hearing a man shouting, ;Every woman without exception must sing and dance,; she assumed it was meant for her and emerged from seclusion to join in. The ground immediately turned to mud, and the entire village sank into the underworld and became rocks. To prevent such an outcome, a girl on her first menstruation is subject to a number of ritual obligations: She must be naked, avoid direct contact with water by drinking with a hollow cane pushed deep into her mouth, may speak only in a whisper, and is limited to a diet of plantains and the occasional crab shell. If she does not properly complete her seclusion, it is believed that she will prematurely age and become an old woman.女孩初次来潮时,必须告诉自己的母亲,为了女儿不被男人看见,母亲会用一种特殊的灌木叶子为她搭一个小隔离棚。这种做法来源于一个古代传说:以前,一个年轻女孩正因初潮被隔离时,部落里有宾客来访,人们都忙着为来宾筹备礼宴。这时女孩听到一个男人大叫;所有女人必须出来唱歌跳舞,没有例外;,女孩以为她也必须出席,所以出了棚子跳舞去了。与此同时,大地顷刻化为泥沼,整个村子沉入地下与石头融为一体。为了防止这种情况再次发生,初次来潮的女孩必须遵循一系列的仪式条例:她必须一丝不挂;为了防止她与水源直接接触,她只能喝人们从棚外用一根空心杖送到她嘴边的水;她不能大声说话;日常三餐只能吃大蕉,偶尔加餐能吃点蟹壳。人们相信,如果她不按规矩完成隔离,她将会早衰,变成一个老太婆。1.Kamakhya1.迦梨女神In Sakta Tantra, the menstrual cycle in the female body represents the changing seasons and universal order. It is particularly associated with the goddess Kamakhya, or Mother Shakti, whose Kamarupa temple is located in Gauhati, in India#39;s Assam state. At the annual, three-day Ambubachi Mela festival in August or September, the goddess#39;s yoni (vagina or womb) is believed to manifest itself on Earth, attracting tens of thousands of devotees every year. At the Kamarupa temple, a stone of red arsenic, said to be the yoni of the dismembered goddess Sati, flows with red water during this time. The temple is closed for three days as orthodox rituals are carried out inside. On the fourth day, the doors are opened, and devotees are allowed to receive darsan (blessing via viewing the goddess through red cloth), prasad (blessed food), and maybe a piece of red cloth from her sari, representing fecundity.印度古籍《沙格蒂坦特罗》中认为,人们认为女性的月经周期象征着季节变更以及宇宙秩序。经期与迦梨女神有着特殊的关联,迦梨女神又被称为夏克提(性力女神),她的迦缕波神殿位于阿萨姆省高哈蒂。每年八月或九月会举行为期三天的迦梨女神节,女神的外阴像(阴道或是子宫)被公之于众,吸引了数以万计的信徒前来瞻仰。 迦缕波神殿中有一尊据传是萨提女神外阴的红信石,在女神节期间会流出红色液体。因为传统仪式在殿内进行时,所以神殿会关闭三天。在第四天,殿门大开,信徒可以沾光得福(得以透过红布见女神一面,从而得到庇护),领到布施, 或者有幸得到女神莎丽上一块象征生殖力的红布。In tantric alchemy, the goddess#39;s uterine blood is associated with red arsenic, and it is believed to have healing powers, particularly curing people suffering from leucodermia, as well as the ability to transmute metals into gold. Some extremist Tantrics believe that the Ambubachi festival is the best time of year to commit human sacrifices, which are generally frowned upon these days. One mystic even tried to sacrifice his 18-month-old daughter at the temple, slicing at her neck with a razor before temple officials intervened, and the man was arrested.在密宗炼金术中,女神的子宫经血象征着雄黄,据传有治愈能力,特别是针对白斑病有奇效,还有点石成金的魔力。一些极端的坦陀罗相信迦梨女神节是一年中献祭活人的最好时刻,而对于现代人来说,这是很难以理解的举动。有一个神秘主义者奉上自己18个月大的女儿作为祭品,并试图用剃刀割她的脖子,直到被殿内工作人员发现并及时制止后将他抓捕入狱。审校:梅子九 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201605/441028 III. China and the Philippines Have Reached Consensus on Settling Their Relevant Disputes in the South China Sea三、中菲已就解决南海有关争议达成共识73. China firmly upholds its sovereignty over Nanhai Zhudao, resolutely opposes the Philippines’ invasion and illegal occupation of China’s islands and reefs, and resolutely opposes the unilateral acts taken by the Philippines on the pretext of enforcing its own claims to infringe China’s rights and interests in waters under China’s jurisdiction. Still, in the interest of sustaining peace and stability in the South China Sea, China has exercised great restraint, stayed committed to peacefully settling the disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea, and made tireless efforts to this end. China has conducted consultations with the Philippines on managing maritime differences and promoting practical maritime cooperation, and the two sides have reached important consensus on settling through negotiation relevant disputes in the South China Sea and properly managing relevant disputes.73. 中国坚决捍卫对南海诸岛的主权,坚决反对菲律宾非法侵占中国岛礁,坚决反对菲律宾依据单方面主张在中国管辖海域采取侵权行为。同时,从维护南海和平稳定出发,中国保持高度克制,坚持和平解决中菲南海有关争议,并为此作出不懈努力。中国就管控海上分歧以及推动海上务实合作等与菲律宾进行多次磋商,双方就通过谈判解决南海有关争议,妥善管控有关分歧达成重要共识。i. It is the consensus and commitment of China and the Philippines to settle through negotiation their relevant disputes in the South China Sea(一)通过谈判解决南海有关争议是中菲共识和承诺74. China has dedicated itself to fostering friendly relations with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, namely, mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence.74. 中国一贯致力于在相互尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则基础上与各国发展友好关系。75. In June 1975, China and the Philippines normalized their relations, and in the joint communiqué for that purpose, the two governments agreed to settle all disputes by peaceful means without resorting to the threat or use of force.75. 1975年6月,中菲关系实现正常化,两国在有关公报中明确指出,两国政府同意不诉诸武力,不以武力相威胁,和平解决所有争端。76. In fact, China’s initiative of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes” regarding the South China Sea issue was first addressed to the Philippines. In a June 1986 meeting with Philippine Vice President Salvador Laurel, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping pointed out that Nansha Qundao belongs to China, and when referring to the matter of differences, stated that, “This issue can be shelved for now. Several years later, we can sit down and work out a solution that is acceptable to all in a calm manner. We shall not let this issue stand in the way of our friendly relations with the Philippines and with other countries.” In April 1988, when meeting with Philippine President Corazón Aquino, Deng Xiaoping reiterated that “with regard to the issue concerning Nansha Qundao, China has the biggest say. Nansha Qundao has been part of China’s territory throughout history, and no one has ever expressed objection to this for quite some time”; and “For the sake of the friendship between our two countries, we can shelve the issue for now and pursue joint development”. Since then, when handling the relevant South China Sea issue and developing bilateral ties with other littoral countries around the South China Sea, China has all along acted in keeping with Deng Xiaoping’s idea: “sovereignty belongs to China, disputes can be shelved, and we can pursue joint development”.76. 实际上,中国在解决南海问题上的“搁置争议,共同开发”倡议,首先是对菲律宾提出的。1986年6月,中国领导人邓小平在会见菲律宾副总统萨尔瓦多#8226;劳雷尔时,指出南沙群岛属于中国,同时针对有关分歧表示,“这个问题可以先搁置一下,先放一放。过几年后,我们坐下来,平心静气地商讨一个可为各方接受的方式。我们不会让这个问题妨碍与菲律宾和其他国家的友好关系”。1988年4月,邓小平在会见菲律宾总统科拉松#8226;阿基诺时重申“对南沙群岛问题,中国最有发言权。南沙历史上就是中国领土,很长时间,国际上对此无异议”;“从两国友好关系出发,这个问题可先搁置一下,采取共同开发的办法”。此后,中国在处理南海有关争议及同南海周边国家发展双边关系问题上,一直贯彻了邓小平关于“主权属我,搁置争议,共同开发”的思想。77. Since the 1980s, China has put forward a series of proposals and initiatives for managing and settling through negotiation disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea and reiterated repeatedly its sovereignty over Nansha Qundao, its position on peacefully settling the relevant disputes and its initiative of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes”. China has expressed its clear opposition to intervention by outside forces and attempts to multilateralize the South China Sea issue and emphasized that the relevant disputes should not affect bilateral relations.77. 20世纪80年代以来,中国就通过谈判管控和解决中菲南海有关争议提出一系列主张和倡议,多次重申对南沙群岛的主权、和平解决南海有关争议的立场和“搁置争议,共同开发”的倡议,明确表示反对外部势力介入,反对南海问题国际化,强调不应使争议影响两国关系的发展。78. In July 1992, the 25th ASEAN Foreign Ministers Meeting held in Manila adopted the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea. China expressed appreciation for relevant principles outlined in that Declaration. China stated that it has all along stood for peacefully settling through negotiation the territorial issues relating to part of Nansha Qundao and opposed the use of force, and is y to enter into negotiation with countries concerned on implementing the principle of “pursuing joint development while shelving disputes” when conditions are ripe.78. 1992年7月,在马尼拉举行的第25届东盟外长会议发表《东盟关于南海问题的宣言》。中国表示,赞赏这一宣言所阐述的相关原则。中国一贯主张通过谈判和平解决南沙群岛部分岛礁有关领土问题,反对诉诸武力,愿在条件成熟时同有关国家谈判“搁置争议,共同开发”。79. In August 1995, China and the Philippines issued the Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines concerning Consultations on the South China Sea and on Other Areas of Cooperation in which they agreed that “[d]isputes shall be settled by the countries directly concerned” and that “a gradual and progressive process of cooperation shall be adopted with a view to eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes.” Subsequently, China and the Philippines reaffirmed their consensus on settling the South China Sea issue through bilateral negotiation and consultation in a number of bilateral documents, such as the March 1999 Joint Statement of the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures and the May 2000 Joint Statement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines on the Framework of Bilateral Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century.79. 1995年8月,中菲共同发表的《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国关于南海问题和其他领域合作的磋商联合声明》表示,“争议应由直接有关国家解决”;“双方承诺循序渐进地进行合作,最终谈判解决双方争议”。此后,中国和菲律宾通过一系列双边文件确认通过双边谈判协商解决南海问题的有关共识,例如:1999年3月《中菲建立信任措施工作小组会议联合公报》、2000年5月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府关于21世纪双边合作框架的联合声明》等。80. In November 2002, China and the ten ASEAN Member States signed the DOC in which the parties solemnly “undertake to resolve their territorial and jurisdictional disputes by peaceful means, without resorting to the threat or use of force, through friendly consultations and negotiations by sovereign states directly concerned, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea”.80. 2002年11月,中国同东盟10国共同签署《宣言》。各方在《宣言》中郑重承诺:“根据公认的国际法原则,包括1982年《联合国海洋法公约》,由直接有关的主权国家通过友好磋商和谈判,以和平方式解决它们的领土和管辖权争议,而不诉诸武力或以武力相威胁。”81. Afterwards, China and the Philippines reaffirmed this solemn commitment they had made in the DOC in a number of bilateral documents, such as the September 2004 Joint Press Statement between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the September 2011 Joint Statement between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines.81. 此后,中菲通过一系列双边文件确认各自在《宣言》中作出的郑重承诺,例如:2004年9月《中华人民共和国政府和菲律宾共和国政府联合新闻公报》、2011年9月《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国联合声明》等。82. The relevant provisions in all the aforementioned bilateral instruments and the DOC embody the following consensus and commitment between China and the Philippines on settling the relevant disputes in the South China Sea: first, the relevant disputes shall be settled between sovereign states directly concerned; second, the relevant disputes shall be peacefully settled through negotiation and consultation on the basis of equality and mutual respect; and third, sovereign states directly concerned shall “eventually negotiat[e] a settlement of the bilateral disputes” in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS.82. 上述中菲两国各项双边文件以及《宣言》的相关规定,体现了中菲就解决南海有关争议达成的以下共识和承诺:一是有关争议应在直接有关的主权国家之间解决;二是有关争议应在平等和相互尊重基础上,通过谈判协商和平解决;三是直接有关的主权国家根据公认的国际法原则,包括1982年《联合国海洋法公约》,“最终谈判解决双方争议”。83. By repeatedly reaffirming negotiations as the means for settling relevant disputes, and by repeatedly emphasizing that negotiations be conducted by sovereign states directly concerned, the above-mentioned provisions obviously have produced the effect of excluding any means of third party settlement. In particular, the 1995 Joint Statement provides for “eventually negotiating a settlement of the bilateral disputes”. The term “eventually” in this context clearly serves to emphasize that “negotiations” is the only means the parties have chosen for dispute settlement, to the exclusion of any other means including third party settlement procedures. The above consensus and commitment constitutes an agreement between the two states excluding third-party dispute settlement as a way to settle relevant disputes in the South China Sea between China and the Philippines. This agreement must be observed.83. 中菲双方多次重申通过谈判解决有关争议,并多次强调有关谈判应由直接有关的主权国家开展,上述规定显然已产生排除任何第三方争端解决方式的效果。特别是1995年的联合声明规定“最终谈判解决双方争议”,这里的“最终”一词明显是为了强调“谈判”是双方已选择的唯一争端解决方式,并排除包括第三方争端解决程序在内的任何其他方式。上述共识和承诺构成两国间排除通过第三方争端解决方式解决中菲南海有关争议的协议。这一协议必须遵守。ii. It is the consensus of China and the Philippines to properly manage relevant disputes in the South China Sea(二)妥善管控南海有关争议是中菲之间的共识84. It is China’s consistent position that, the relevant parties should establish and improve rules and mechanisms, and pursue practical cooperation and joint development, so as to manage disputes in the South China Sea, and to foster a good atmosphere for their final resolution.84. 中国一贯主张,各方应通过制定规则、完善机制、务实合作、共同开发等方式管控争议,为南海有关争议的最终解决创造良好氛围。85. Since the 1990s, China and the Philippines have reached the following consensus on managing their disputes: first, they will exercise restraint in handling relevant disputes and refrain from taking actions that may lead to an escalation; second, they will stay committed to managing disputes through bilateral consultation mechanisms; third, they commit themselves to pursuing practical maritime cooperation and joint development; and fourth, the relevant disputes should not affect the healthy growth of bilateral relations and peace and stability in the South China Sea region.85. 自20世纪90年代以来,中菲就管控争议达成一系列共识:一是在有关争议问题上保持克制,不采取可能导致事态扩大化的行动;二是坚持通过双边磋商机制管控争议;三是坚持推动海上务实合作和共同开发;四是不使有关争议影响双边关系的健康发展和南海地区的和平与稳定。86. In the DOC, China and the Philippines also reached the following consensus: to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace and stability; to intensify efforts, pending the peaceful settlement of territorial and jurisdictional disputes, to seek ways, in the spirit of cooperation and understanding, to build trust and confidence; and to explore or undertake cooperative activities including marine environmental protection, marine scientific research, safety of navigation and communication at sea, search and rescue operation and combating transnational crime.86. 中菲还在《宣言》中达成如下共识:保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化和影响和平与稳定的行动;在和平解决领土和管辖权争议前,本着合作与谅解的精神,努力寻求各种途径建立互信;探讨或开展在海洋环保、海洋科学研究、海上航行和交通安全、搜寻与救助、打击跨国犯罪等方面的合作。87. China and the Philippines have made some progress in managing their differences and conducting practical maritime cooperation.87. 中菲曾就管控分歧、开展海上务实合作取得积极进展。88. During the first China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures held in March 1999, the two sides issued a joint statement, pointing out that, “the two sides agreed that the dispute should be peacefully settled through consultation in accordance with the generally-accepted principles of international law including the ed Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, [... and to] exercise self-restraint and not to take actions that might escalate the situation.”88. 1999年3月,中国和菲律宾举行关于在南海建立信任措施工作小组首次会议,双方发表的《中菲建立信任措施工作小组会议联合公报》指出,“双方承诺根据广泛接受的国际法原则包括联合国海洋法公约,通过协商和平解决争议,……双方同意保持克制,不采取可能导致事态扩大化的行动。”89. In the Joint Press Statement of the Third China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures released in April 2001, it is stated that, “the two sides noted that the bilateral consultation mechanism to explore ways of cooperation in the South China Sea has been effective. The series of understanding and consensus reached by the two sides have played a constructive role in the maintenance of the sound development of China-Philippines relations and peace and stability of the South China Sea area.”89. 2001年4月,中菲发表的《第三次建立信任措施专家组会议联合新闻声明》指出,“双方认识到两国就探讨南海合作方式所建立的双边磋商机制是富有成效的,双方所达成的一系列谅解与共识对维护中菲关系的健康发展和南海地区的和平与稳定发挥了建设性作用。”90. In September 2004, in the presence of the leaders of China and the Philippines, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) signed the Agreement for Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking in Certain Areas in the South China Sea. In March 2005, national oil companies from China, the Philippines and Vietnam signed, with the consent of both China and the Philippines, the Tripartite Agreement for Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking in the Agreement Area in the South China Sea. It was agreed that during an agreement term of three year-period, these oil companies should collect and process certain amount of 2D and/or 3D seismic lines in the agreement area covering about 143,000 square kilometers, re-process certain amount of existing 2D seismic lines, and study and assess the oil resources in the area. The 2007 Joint Statement of the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines states that, “both sides agree that the tripartite joint marine seismic undertaking in the South China Sea serves as a model for cooperation in the region. They agreed that possible next steps for cooperation among the three parties should be explored to bring collaboration to a higher level and increase the momentum of trust and confidence in the region.”90. 2004年9月,在中国和菲律宾领导人的共同见下,中国海洋石油总公司和菲律宾国家石油公司签署《南中国海部分海域联合海洋地震工作协议》。经中菲双方同意,2005年3月,中国、菲律宾、越南三国国家石油公司签署《南中国海协议区三方联合海洋地震工作协议》,商定三国的石油公司在三年协议期内,在约14.3万平方千米海域的协议区内完成一定数量的二维和/或三维地震测线的采集和处理工作,对一定数量现有的二维地震测线进行再处理,研究评估协议区的石油资源状况。2007年《中华人民共和国和菲律宾共和国联合声明》表示,“双方认为,南海三方联合海洋地震工作可以成为本地区合作的一个示范。双方同意,可以探讨将下一阶段的三方合作提升到更高水平,以加强本地区建立互信的良好势头。”91. Regrettably, due to the lack of willingness for cooperation from the Philippine side, the China-Philippines Experts Group Meeting on Confidence-Building Measures has stalled, and the China-Philippines-Vietnam tripartite marine seismic undertaking has failed to move forward.91. 令人遗憾的是,由于菲律宾方面缺乏合作意愿,中菲信任措施工作小组会议陷于停滞,中菲越三方联合海洋地震考察工作也未能继续。IV. The Philippines Has Repeatedly Taken Moves that Complicate the Relevant Disputes四、菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动92. Since the 1980s, the Philippines has repeatedly taken moves that complicate the relevant disputes.92. 自20世纪80年代以来,菲律宾一再采取导致争议复杂化的行动。i. The Philippines attempts to entrench its illegal occupation of some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao(一)菲律宾企图扩大对中国南沙群岛部分岛礁的侵占93. In China’s Nansha Qundao, the Philippines started in the 1980s to build military facilities on some islands and reefs it has invaded and illegally occupied. In the 1990s, the Philippines continued to build airfields and naval and air force facilities on these illegally-occupied islands and reefs; centered on Zhongye Dao, the construction has extended to other islands and reefs, with runways, military barracks, docks and other facilities built and renovated, so as to accommodate heavy transport planes, fighter jets and more and larger vessels. Furthermore, the Philippines made deliberate provocations by frequently sending its military vessels and aircraft to intrude into Wufang Jiao, Xian’e Jiao, Xinyi Jiao, Banyue Jiao and Ren’ai Jiao of China’s Nansha Qundao, and destroyed survey markers set up by China.93. 自20世纪80年代起,菲律宾就在非法侵占的中国南沙群岛有关岛礁上建设军事设施。90年代,菲律宾继续在非法侵占的中国南沙群岛有关岛礁修建机场和海空军基地,以非法侵占的中国南沙群岛中业岛为重点,持续在相关岛礁建设和修整机场、兵营、码头等设施,以方便起降重型运输机、战斗机及容纳更多更大的舰船。菲律宾还蓄意挑衅,频繁派出军舰、飞机侵入中国南沙群岛五方礁、仙娥礁、信义礁、半月礁和仁爱礁,肆意破坏中国设置的测量标志。94. Still worse, on 9 May 1999, the Philippines sent BRP Sierra Madre (LT-57), a military vessel, to intrude into China’s Ren’ai Jiao and illegally ran it aground on the pretext of “technical difficulties”. China immediately made solemn representations to the Philippines, demanding the immediate removal of that vessel. But the Philippines claimed that the vessel could not be towed away for “lack of parts”.94. 更有甚者,1999年5月9日,菲律宾派出57号坦克登陆舰入侵中国仁爱礁,并以“技术故障搁浅”为借口,在该礁非法“坐滩”。中国当即对菲律宾提出严正交涉,要求立即拖走该舰。而菲律宾却称该舰“缺少零部件”无法拖走。95. Over this matter, China has repeatedly made representations to the Philippines and renewed the same demand. For instance, in November 1999, the Chinese Ambassador to the Philippines met with Secretary of Foreign Affairs Domingo Siazon and Chief of the Presidential Management Staff Leonora de Jesus to make another round of representations. Many times the Philippines promised to tow away the vessel, but it has taken no action.95. 就此,中国持续对菲律宾进行交涉,再三要求菲方拖走该舰。例如,1999年11月,中国驻菲律宾大使约见菲律宾外长西亚松和总统办公室主任来妮海索斯,再次就该舰非法“坐滩”仁爱礁事进行交涉。菲律宾虽然再三承诺将把该舰从仁爱礁撤走,但一直拖延不动。96. In September 2003, upon the news that the Philippines was preparing to build facilities around that military vessel illegally run aground at Ren’ai Jiao, China lodged immediate representations. The Philippine Acting Secretary of Foreign Affairs Franklin Ebdalin responded that the Philippines had no intention to construct facilities on Ren’ai Jiao and that, as a signatory to the DOC, the Philippines had no desire to and would not be the first to violate the Declaration.96. 2003年9月,得知菲律宾准备在仁爱礁非法“坐滩”的军舰周围修建设施后,中国当即提出严正交涉。菲律宾代理外长埃卜达林表示,菲律宾无意在仁爱礁上修建设施,菲律宾是《宣言》的签署者,不会也不愿成为第一个违反者。97. But the Philippines did not fulfill its undertaking to tow away that vessel. Instead, it made even worse provocations. In February 2013, cables were lined up around that grounded vessel and people on board bustled around, making preparations for the construction of permanent facilities. In response to China’s repeated representations, the Philippine Secretary of National Defense Voltaire Gazmin claimed that the Philippines was simply resupplying and repairing the vessel, and promised that no facilities would be built on Ren’ai Jiao.97. 但是菲律宾拒不履行拖走该舰的承诺,反而变本加厉,采取进一步挑衅行为。菲律宾于2013年2月在非法“坐滩”的该舰四周拉起固定缆绳,舰上人员频繁活动,准备建设固定设施。在中国多次交涉下,菲律宾国防部长加斯明声称,菲律宾只是在对该舰进行补给和修补,承诺不会在仁爱礁上修建设施。98. On 14 March 2014, the Philippine Department of Foreign Affairs issued a statement openly declaring that the vessel it ran aground at Ren’ai Jiao was placed there as a permanent Philippine government installation. This was an apparent attempt to provide an excuse for its continued refusal to fulfill its undertaking to tow away that vessel in order to illegally seize Ren’ai Jiao. China immediately responded that it was shocked by this statement and reiterated that it would never allow the Philippines to seize Ren’ai Jiao by any means.98. 2014年3月14日,菲律宾外交部发表声明,公然宣称菲律宾当年用57号坦克登陆舰在仁爱礁“坐滩”,就是为了“将该军舰作为菲律宾政府的永久设施部署在仁爱礁”,企图以此为借口,继续拒不履行拖走该舰的承诺,进而达到侵占仁爱礁的目的。中国当即对此表示震惊,并重申绝不允许菲方以任何形式侵占仁爱礁。99. In July 2015, the Philippines stated publicly that the so-called maintenance repair was being done to fortify the vessel.99. 2015年7月,菲律宾公开声明,菲方正对在仁爱礁“坐滩”的军舰进行内部整固。100. To sum up, by running aground its military vessel at Ren’ai Jiao, then promising repeatedly to tow it away but breaking that promise repeatedly and even fortifying it, the Philippines has proven itself to be the first to openly violate the DOC.100. 菲律宾用军舰“坐滩”仁爱礁,承诺拖走却始终食言,直至采取加固措施,以自己的实际行动明菲律宾就是第一个公然违反《宣言》的国家。101. Over the years, the Philippines has invaded and illegally occupied some islands and reefs of China’s Nansha Qundao and constructed various military facilities thereupon in an attempt to establish a fait accompli of permanent occupation. These moves have grossly violated China’s sovereignty over the relevant islands and reefs of Nansha Qundao and violated the Charter of the ed Nations and basic norms of international law.101. 长期以来,菲律宾非法侵占中国南沙群岛有关岛礁,并在岛礁上修筑各种军事设施,企图制造既成事实,长期霸占。菲律宾的所作所为,严重侵犯中国对南沙群岛有关岛礁的主权,严重违反《宪章》和国际法基本准则。ii. The Philippines has increasingly intensified its infringement of China’s maritime rights and interests(二)菲律宾一再扩大海上侵权102. Since the 1970s, the Philippines, asserting its unilateral claims, has intruded into, among others, the maritime areas of Liyue Tan and Zhongxiao Tan of China’s Nansha Qundao to carry out illegal oil and gas exploratory drilling, including listing the relevant blocks for bidding.102. 自20世纪70年代起,菲律宾依据其单方面主张,先后侵入中国南沙群岛礼乐滩、忠孝滩等地进行非法油气钻探,包括就有关区块进行对外招标。103. Since 2000, the Philippines has expanded the areas for bidding, intruding into larger sea areas of China’s Nansha Qundao. A large span of sea areas of China’s Nansha Qundao was designated as bidding blocks by the Philippines in 2003. During the fifth “Philippine Energy Contracting Round” launched in May 2014, four of the bidding blocks on offer reached into relevant sea areas of China’s Nansha Qundao.103. 进入21世纪以来,菲律宾扩大对外招标范围,大面积侵入中国南沙群岛有关海域。2003年,菲律宾将大片中国南沙群岛相关海域划为对外招标区块。2014年5月,菲律宾进行了第5轮油气招标,其中4个招标区块侵入中国南沙群岛相关海域。104. The Philippines has repeatedly intruded into relevant waters of China’s Nansha Qundao, harassing and attacking Chinese fishermen and fishing boats conducting routine fishing operations. Currently available statistics show that from 1989 to 2015, 97 incidents occurred in which the Philippines infringed upon the safety, life and property of Chinese fishermen: 8 involving shooting, 34 assault and robbery, 40 capture and detention, and 15 chasing. These incidents brought adverse consequences to close to 200 Chinese fishing vessels and over 1,000 Chinese fishermen. In addition, the Philippines treated Chinese fishermen in a violent, cruel and inhumane manner.104. 菲律宾还不断侵入中国南沙群岛有关海域,袭扰中国渔民和渔船正常生产作业。据不完全统计,1989年至2015年,在上述海域共发生菲律宾非法侵犯中国渔民生命和财产安全事件97件,其中击8件,抢劫34件,抓扣40件,追赶15件;共涉及中国渔船近200艘,渔民上千人。菲律宾还野蛮、粗暴对待中国渔民,施以非人道待遇。105. Philippine armed personnel often use excessive force against Chinese fishermen in utter disregard of the safety of their lives. For example, on 27 April 2006, one armed Philippine fishing vessel intruded into Nanfang Qiantan of China’s Nansha Qundao and attacked Chinese fishing boat Qiongqionghai 03012. One Philippine armed motor boat carrying four gunmen approached that Chinese fishing boat. Immediately these gunmen fired several rounds of bullets at the driving panel, killing Chen Yichao and three other Chinese fishermen on the spot, severely wounding two others and causing minor injuries to another. Subsequently a total of 13 gunmen forced their way onboard the Chinese fishing boat and seized satellite navigation and communication equipment, fishing equipment and harvests and other items.105. 菲律宾武装人员经常无视中国渔民的生命安全,滥用武力。例如,2006年4月27日,菲律宾武装渔船侵入中国南沙群岛南方浅滩海域,袭击中国“琼琼海03012”号渔船,菲方一艘武装小艇及4名持人员向中国渔船靠近,并直接向渔船驾驶台连续开射击,造成陈奕超等4名渔民当场死亡、2人重伤、1人轻伤。随后,13名持人员强行登上渔船进行抢劫,劫走船上卫星导航、通讯设备、生产工具、渔获等。106. The Philippines has repeatedly infringed China’s maritime rights and interests in an attempt to expand and entrench its illegal claims in the South China Sea. These actions have grossly violated China’s sovereignty and rights and interests in the South China Sea. By doing so, the Philippines has seriously violated its own commitment made under the DOC to exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes. By firing upon Chinese fishing boats and fishermen, illegally seizing and detaining Chinese fishermen, giving them inhumane treatment and robbing them of their property, the Philippines has gravely infringed upon the personal and property safety and the dignity of Chinese fishermen and blatantly trampled on their basic human rights.106. 菲律宾一再采取各种海上侵权行动,企图扩大其在南海的非法主张,严重侵犯中国在南海的主权及相关权益。菲律宾的侵权行为严重违背了其在《宣言》中关于保持自我克制,不采取使争议复杂化、扩大化行动的承诺。菲律宾击、抢劫中国渔船和渔民,非法抓扣中国渔民并施以非人道待遇,严重侵犯中国渔民的人身和财产安全以及人格尊严,公然践踏基本人权。 /201607/454524白银做纹眼线多少钱成都纹眉毛一般多少钱

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