明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月21日 22:00:11



  Just over 500 years ago, Europeans arrived in North America. And with these colonizers came an animal that hadn’t been seen here for thousands of years. The horse returned to the Americas, now tamed and carrying the Spanish conquistadors. This new form of transport was rapidly adopted by the native people, which was bad news for some native animals. 就在500多年前,欧洲人来到了北美大陆。随着这些殖民者的到来,北美大陆也迎来了一个新物种,这个物种在北美大陆过去的千年历史中从未出现。马儿来到了北美洲,并且载着他们的主人——西班牙殖民者。这种新型交通工具很快就被当地土著人所采用,这对于北美大陆的一些动物来说可不是条好消息。Bison had once lived alongside the wild horses of North America, and had prospered at the end of the Ice Age while the horses became extinct. But now the new tame horse became the bison’s enemy.北美犀牛曾和野马共同生活在北美洲,在冰河时代末期,野马灭亡,而犀牛却幸存并壮大。但是现在这些被驯的新种马儿却成了犀牛的敌人。The horse’s speed and stamina gave native people an advantage over their prey that they never had before. 马的速度快,耐力强,这使土著人在进行打猎时有了前所未有的优势。The horse was an even bigger ally to the increasing number of European settlers sping out across the continent. They killed millions of bison for their meat and hides.同样,马儿也更大程度地帮助了越来越多的欧洲殖民者扩大他们殖民的步伐。这些殖民者为了犀牛肉和犀牛皮残杀了数百万头犀牛。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/264648

  Business商业报道Business in Greece希腊商业Outrageous fortune残酷的命运Survivors of the crisis are those that move fast and think creatively经济危机的生还者是那些行动迅速具有创造性思维的人。APOSTOLOS KAISIDIS is thankful that in 2008, after nearly half a century dealing in cars, his family firm moved out of Thessaloniki, Greeces second-largest city, to a cheaper place 50km away, and started repairing vehicles as well as selling them.APOSTOLOS KAISIDIS非常庆幸在2008年,几乎汽车买卖半个世纪后,把他的家庭公司从希腊的第二大城市—塞萨洛尼基搬到了50公里以外更加便宜的地方并且跟卖车一样开始了汽车修理业务。If it hadnt, we would probably be bankrupt now, he says.如果它没有这样的话,我们现在很有可以能已经破产了,他说道。In crisis-ridden Greece, companies have had to adapt to survive.在危机笼罩下的希腊,公司们不得不适者生存。Only about 50,000 new cars are expected to be bought in Greece this year, down from 220,000 in , partly because loans are scarce.今年预计希腊只有50,,00辆新车的购买量,从年的220,000降了下来,部分原因是缺乏贷款。But with more ageing bangers on the roads, the repairs side of his business has been busy.但是随着路上有更多的旧车,他公司的维修业务很繁荣。Since April 2008 the number of businesses registered with IKA, Greeces biggest social-security fund, has dropped by 119,000, or 38%.自从2008年4月起IKA,希腊最大的社会保基金,登记注册的业务数量已经跌到了119,000,或者38%。In such a brutal climate, businesses have had to do much more than just tighten their belts.在如此残酷的环境下,商业不得不想更多的办法而不是仅仅勒紧裤腰带。Relocating is one popular survival strategy.重新选址是一个比较常见的生存策略。Whereas Mr Kaisidis has moved his firm out to the sticks to cut costs, Anna Maria Mazaraki, the owner of nine jewellery shops in Athens, is taking advantage of weak commercial rents and moving some stores to more upmarket sites.因此Kaisidis先生把他的公司从街区搬了出去以便节省花费,Anna Maria Mazaraki,希腊9家珠宝店的拥有者,正在利用廉价的商业租金的优势并且把一些商店搬到高级网站上去。That ensures higher footfall and gives customers the impression she must be doing well, she says.这样可以保更高的访问量和给顾客们她可能做得很好的印象,她说道。Others are moving their headquarters—but not necessarily their operations—out of Greece, to get access to cheaper funding.其它公司是把他们的总部而不必然是他们的运营机构搬出希腊来获取廉价的融资。Last year Fage, the countrys leading purveyor of yogurt, and Coca-Cola Hellenic, the worlds second-largest bottler of Coke, moved to Luxembourg and Switzerland respectively.去年Fage,这个国家重要的酸奶厂商,和可口可乐,世界上第二大的可乐公司,分别搬到了卢森堡和瑞士。Now Viohalco, the countrys biggest metals processor, is being acquired by its Belgian subsidiary.现在Viohalco,这个国家最大的金属加工商,正在获取它的比利时补贴。Considering that they come from a nation of seafarers, Greek business folk can be rather inward-looking when marketing their wares.由于它们来自一个航海者国度,希腊商人们在销售商品时更加偏向于内部。But the dire state of the domestic economy is prompting some of them to seek new customers abroad.但是糟糕的国内经济环境促使他们中的一部分人开始在国外寻找新客户。Dodoni, a dairy company, is setting up ice-cream outlets in Russia and Ukraine, to add to its portfolio in Bulgaria and Cyprus.一个奶制品公司Donoi正在俄罗斯和乌拉圭开冰淇淋批发商店来增加它在保加利亚和塞浦路斯的券投资组合。Korres, a cosmetics firm, is developing its presence in Germany, France, Russia and Scandinavia.而化妆品公司Korres,正在德国、法国、俄罗斯和斯堪的纳维亚发展它的分机构。World Excellent Products, set up in 2011 by five young Greeks, exports premium-quality olive oil to 20 countries.2011年由5个年轻的希腊人设立的World Excellent Products,出口一流的橄榄油到20个国家。Although Greece produces about one-tenth of the worlds olive oil, much of its output is exported in bulk to Italy, where it is bottled, branded and sold at a markup.尽管希腊生产了世界十分之一的橄榄油,它的大部分产品都大量批发到意大利,在那里装瓶,贴商标并且以化妆品出售。Despite such efforts, Greek exports as a share of GDP are still just over half of the euro-zone average.尽管有上面的那些努力,希腊出口作为GDP的一部分仍然刚刚超过欧元区平均水平的一半。If petroleum products are excluded, goods exports are still lower than in 2008.如果石油产品被排除,商品出口仍然比2008年低。A survey of Greek sales managers, by Athens University of Economics and Business, found that only 26% of them saw exporting as an important strategic response to the crisis.由希腊经管学院对希腊销售经理做的一个调查显示仅仅他们中的26%将出口作为应对危机的重要策略。Their priorities were seeking new domestic markets and making more use of the internet.他们首选寻找新的国内市场和更多的利用互联网。At least they were right about the last bit.至少他们是现在的最后一点。Digilex, founded in 2011 in Athens, designs websites, e-commerce systems and mobile apps to retailers looking to cut costs and expand their reach.2011年在希腊设立的Digilex为希望减少开和扩大他们覆盖范围的零售商设计网站、电子商务系统和移动应用。One of its creations is Snatch.gr, an online platform selling a range of cheap of products, either sourced from companies going into liquidation, or imported from China.它的作品之一是Snatch.gr,一个销售一些列便宜货物的网络平台,它的货物来源既有国内破产公司,又有中国的进口产品。The biggest challenge is bureaucracy, says Digilexs co-founder, Alex Ehrmann: it took four months to set up the company.最大的挑战是官僚主义,Digilex的共同创办人说道,Alex Ehrmann:它花了四个月的时间设立公司。Taxibeat, a cab-hailing mobile app started in 2010, has expanded to various European cities as well as Rio de Janeiro, So Paulo and Mexico City.一个2010年叫出租车的手机应用Taxibeat,已经扩展到了欧洲的绝大部分城市如里约热内卢、圣保罗和墨西哥城。Globo, whose mobile apps let employees use their own devices for work, has divested part of its Greek business to focus on international clients.公司Globo的手机应用让雇员使用它们的设备工作,已经丢弃了他们希腊业务的一部分而专注于国际客户。It has been the best performer on Londons FTSE AIM Index this year.它今年的伦敦FTSE AIM指数表现最好。Perhaps Greeces most visible business trend is the proliferation of bakeries, frozen-yogurt shops, cafés, and souvlaki stalls.可能希腊最可预见的商业趋势是甜点店的增开,酸奶冰淇淋店,咖啡管和羊肉摊。Many have been set up by professionals who, having lost their cushy jobs, invested their savings and redundancy pay-offs in starting a new venture.这些店大部分是由那些失去他们轻松工作而投资他们的存款和多余的收入到新企业的专业从业者们设立。This boom in entrepreneurial spirit may be the silver lining to the big, dark economic cloud that still hangs over Greece.这种企业精神的繁荣可能是笼罩在希腊上空的巨大黑暗的经济乌云的一线曙光。 /201311/263838Online business and security网络商业及网络安全A digital heart attack电子心脏病A flaw in popular internet-security software could have serious consequences for all sorts of business广泛使用的网络安全软件出现漏洞,可能会殃及几乎所有企业THE Heartbleed bug sounds like a nasty coronary condition. But it is in fact a software flaw that has left up to two-thirds of the worlds websites vulnerable to attack by hackers. “This is potentially the most dangerous bug that we have seen for a long, long time,” says James Beeson, the chief information security officer of GE Capital Americas, an arm of GE. Since its existence was revealed on April 7th by researchers at Codenomicon, a security outfit, and Google, countless companies around the world that rely on the internet for part or all of their business have been scrambling to fix the flaw.“心脏流血”,听起来像是某种严重的心脏病的名称。但事实上,它是一个软件漏洞的名字,此漏洞使得全球三分之二的网站暴露于被黑客攻击的危险之中。“这可能是近些年来发现过的最危险的漏洞了,”通用电气旗下的通用电气金融务公司的首席信息安全官詹姆士·比森说道。这个漏洞是由网络安全研究团队Codenomicon和谷歌于四月七日发现的,自从那时起,全球范围内,只要是或多或少依靠互联网的公司,都火急火燎地在修补漏洞。Ironically, the bug was discovered in OpenSSL, encryption software that was designed to make the internet more secure. Available free, this open-source code is popular with businesses and governments, which use it to help secure everything from online credit-card transactions to public services. On April 9th, for instance, Canadas tax authority shut off public access to its online services while it checked the security of its systems in the light of news about the bug.讽刺的是,这个漏洞是在OpenSSl中发现的,而后者是一个用于提升网络安全的加密软件。OpenSSL是一个免费的开源软件,被企业和政府部门广泛使用,用于保护信用卡交易或公共务的安全。比如加拿大税务部门的提供的公众网络务就使用了OpenSSL,在得知漏洞的存在后,税务部门便在四月九日关闭了务。The flaw makes it possible for hackers to trick a server into spewing out data held in its memory. OpenSSL has a feature known as a “heartbeat” that allows a computer at one end of an encrypted link to send occasional signals to the computer at the other end of it, to check that it is still online. The researchers discovered that a hacker with knowledge of the bug could replicate this signal and use it to steal all manner of data from a remote computer.“心血”漏洞增加了黑客套取存储在务器上的数据的可能性。OpenSSL有一个名为“心跳”的功能,允许加密链接一端的电脑随机发出一条信息,确认另一端的电脑是否仍然在线。研究人发现,一个熟悉“心血”漏洞的黑客,可以通过复制这个信号来盗取远程计算机上的所有数据。Those data could include encryption keys that let hackers decipher traffic. To make matters worse, the researchers found that the bug, which is present in some versions of OpenSSL that have been available since March 2012, allows attacks to be mounted without leaving a trace in targeted computers “server logs”, so victims are unaware their systems have been compromised. That means it is impossible to tell for sure what damage has been done.这些数据可能包括可以让黑客解码之前通信内容的密钥。更糟糕的是,研究人员发现,此漏洞从2012起就开始在OpenSSL的一些版本中出现;而且,黑客通过此漏洞攻击时不会在其目标计算机的“务器日志”中留下痕迹,所以,受害者无法察觉到自己的系统已经被入侵了。The bug has forced companies to find out fast how many of their systems employ the vulnerable versions of OpenSSL. “Everyone knows they have to patch their customer-facing internet websites, but that is only the tip of the iceberg,” says Jonathan Sander of STEALTHbits Technologies, a security firm that is helping one of Americas biggest banks work out where it has deployed the buggy software. Web-connected systems that handle things such as accounting and personnel data will also need to be checked for the bug.这个漏洞促使企业迅速查明它们自己有哪些系统使用了存在漏洞的OpenSSL。“所有人都知道要去修补他们面向客户的网站,但那些只是冰山一角,”安全公司STEALTHbits Technologies的乔纳森·桑德说。该公司正在帮助美国的一家大型定位其系统上的漏洞。其他联网系统,例如处理帐务和私人信息的联网系统,都有必要检查一下是否有漏洞。Mr Sander likens the discovery of the Heartbleed bug to finding a faulty part in nearly every make and model of car. The problem is that the internet cannot be recalled. Big web companies such as Google and Yahoo have moved fast to deal with the bug. But millions of smaller e-commerce sites and other businesses face the worrying prospect of being attacked by hackers alerted to the bugs existence as the firms race to fix the problem.桑德说,发现“心血”漏洞,就好比汽车厂商在它的每款车里都发现一个同一个缺陷。但问题是,互联行业里没有召回这一说。像谷歌和雅虎这样的大型网络公司已经立即处理了漏洞。但是还有大量的小型的电商网站和其他类型的小公司只能一边抢修,一边担心被那些获悉漏洞存在的黑客的攻击。The cure includes applying a software “patch” and then choosing new encryption keys to replace those that may have been compromised. Once this has been done, customers will often need to change their passwords too. Tumblr, a blogging service owned by Yahoo, has urged its users to change the passwords they use for all of the secure online services that hold sensitive data about them. Some companies even chose to suspend services while they were working on a fix. Bitstamp, a Bitcoin e-currency exchange, temporarily suspended new account registrations and logins to its existing accounts.补救的办法包括给软件打“补丁”,然后用新密钥替换那些可能被盗取的密钥。完成了这两步之后,用户通常还需要更改他们的密码。雅虎旗下提供务的Tumblr就强烈建议用户更改所有包含他们敏感信息的务的密码。有些公司甚至在其修补漏洞期间暂停了务。比特币交易网站Bitstamp就暂时关闭了注册和登录务。Another Y2 K?另一个千年虫?Perhaps the risk posed by the Heartbleed bug will turn out to be overblown. But if it emerges that companies systems have indeed been hacked because of it, this could open a legal can of worms. Firms could argue that they ought not to be punished for using widely trusted security software. But aggrieved customers—and their lawyers—may see things differently.也许,“心血”漏洞可能造成的风险被夸大了。但是一旦真的有公司因此漏洞被黑客入侵了,就可能引起极为棘手的法律纠纷。企业可能会自辩说其不应该因使用被广泛信任的安全软件受罚。但受害的用户和他们的律师可不会这么想。Quite how the bug got into the OpenSSL software in the first place is a mystery. Bruce Schneier, an internet-security expert, argues in a blog post that “the probability is close to one” that intelligence agencies have exploited the glitch to nab the encryption keys needed to decipher information about their targets. His guess is that the glitch is the result of a coding error rather than the handiwork of spies, though he says he cannot be sure.至于究竟这个漏洞最初是如何出现在OpenSSL中的,这还是一个谜。网络安全专家布鲁斯·施奈尔在他的一篇客里称,“毫无疑问”,情报部门已利用此漏洞盗取密钥以获取其监控目标的信息。虽然他不能完全肯定,但他认为漏洞是编程失误的结果,不太可能是间谍的杰作。No matter who is to blame, this episode is another reminder of the security challenges companies face as ever more economic activity shifts online. According to eMarketer, a research outfit, worldwide business-to-consumer e-commerce sales are likely to grow by just over a fifth this year, to .5 trillion. That is a huge commercial opportunity, but it will also encourage cyber-crooks to target businesses even more vigorously. Expect more computer-security heartburn in boardrooms.不管幕后黑手到底是谁,这个事件再一次提醒我们,在企业不断将经济活动向线上转移的过程中,它们将面临大量的安全挑战。据一个名为eMarketer的市场调查公司称,今年全球B2C电商的销售总额将有望达到1.5万亿美元,同比增长超过五分之一。这是巨大的商机,同时也会让网络罪犯们更坚定地咬住企业这块肥肉。就让董事会的老爷们为此烧心窝火吧。 /201404/288732Transatlantic espionage横跨大西洋的谍战The lives of others窃听风暴European governments should not kick up a fuss about American spying. They have too much to lose欧洲国家政府不应为了“棱镜”门而大吵大闹。因为他们将损失惨重NOBODY likes to be spied on, especially by their allies, so it is hardly surprising that Europeans are angry about American espionage operations conducted against them, on their territory. These include spying on the European Union embassy in Washington, DC (with a bug in the fax machine), and on the governments of France, Germany and other countries, as well as the collection of large amounts of electronic data—in Germany’s case half a billion phone calls, e-mails and text messages every month. In a country where Gestapo and Stasi crimes still leave dark shadows, and privacy rights have near-religious significance, that causes outrage.没人喜欢被监控,更不要说被自己的盟友监控了。所以,当欧洲国家发现,美国人在对他们实施监控、还是在自己的地盘上时,会火冒三丈就不足为奇了。美国不仅监控了欧盟驻华盛顿大使馆(在其传真机内植入窃听器)、法德等其他国家政府,还搜集了大量电子数据——就德国而言,其电话、邮件、信息的被监控量每月达五亿。在德国,盖世太保(Gestapo)和斯塔西(Stasi)曾犯下许多罪行,人们心头的阴影还没消散,加之隐私权的神圣性在这里堪比宗教,美国的窃听行为可谓激起了民愤。Many Europeans see in the disclosure further evidence of American arrogance and unaccountability—just another episode in a story that includes an illegal war in Iraq, drone strikes, “extraordinary rendition”, waterboarding and secret prisons. Some European politicians want a punitive response. One idea is to suspend agreements on sharing financial and other data between intelligence and law-enforcement agencies. Another is to halt talks on a big new transatlantic trade deal. A third is to offer asylum to Edward Snowden, the source of the leaks about his former employer, America’s National Security Agency. He is now marooned at a Moscow airport.在许多欧洲人看来,此次“棱镜”门曝光乃美国人傲慢自大、行事鬼祟的又一明。当人们目睹了发生在伊拉克的非法战争、无人机空袭、“非常规引渡”、水刑、秘密监狱等美国的一系列恶行之后,窃听事件只不过是故事的又一个插曲而已。某些欧洲政客希望对此采取惩罚性对策。第一种方法是,中止情报局、执法机构间的包括金融数据在内的信息共享协议。第二种,暂停最近重要的跨大西洋自由贸易协议谈判。第三种,为爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)提供庇护。正是他对外披露了美国国家安全局(也就是他的前雇主)的秘密文件。目前,斯诺登仍困在莫斯科的一家机场中。But any of these grandstanding approaches would be a mistake. One reason is hypocrisy. France has formidable foreign-intelligence services that spy on America, for economic and political advantage. Much of the intelligence that America gathers—especially in counter-terrorism—is shared with European countries. And much of the American activity in Europe happens in partnership with local agencies, even in Germany. Some of this co-operation may be of borderline legality in the countries concerned. Its disclosure may be embarrassing for politicians there. But that is hardly America’s fault.但是,这些高调的处理方法可能都错了。原因之一——虚伪。法国的外国情报工作做得让人胆颤心惊,它为了经济、政治上的利益,也在监视美国。美国搜集的大部分情报都是与欧洲国家共享的,尤其在反恐方面。而且美国在欧洲的大部分行动,如果没有当地机构的合作是完成不了的,即便在德国也不例外。就相关国家而言,其中的部分合作是否合法可能还无法确定。“棱镜”门可能会让那些国家的政客深陷囧地。不过,这可算不上是美国的错。A second reason is self-interest. America’s security umbrella allows European countries to feel safe from, for instance, the possibility of future Russian aggression while spending little on defence. But Europeans cannot take such protection for granted. In many American eyes, Europeans are aly wobbly, tiresome free-riders who do not police their Islamist extremists properly, breach sanctions, flirt with dictatorships and leak secrets to the Russians and Chinese. America’s armed forces are aly draining away from Europe because of Barack Obama’s “pivot” to Asia and a shortage of cash. The last tanks left in April. A petulant European response to the spy row risks speeding the pull-out.原因之二——自私自利。在美国的安全网保护之下,欧洲国家只需花费少量的国防开,就可以高枕无忧,比如,不用担心俄国可能会在将来大举进犯。但欧洲国家不能把这种保护看作理所当然的。在许多美国人眼中,欧洲国家早已是个摇摆不定、招人厌的“蹭饭一族”形象——他们没有妥善地治理本国的伊斯兰极端主义者,他们违背制裁、和独裁者暗中勾结,向俄国、中国泄漏机密。美国的武装力量已经从欧洲逐渐消失了,因为巴拉克#8226;奥巴马的“战略轴心”转向了亚洲,而且美国缺乏资金。四月份的时候,最后一批坦克撤离了。欧洲要是这么任性地处理窃听风波,可能会加速美方撤离。Europe also has most to gain from a transatlantic trade deal. It desperately needs the extra economic growth an agreement would bring (see article). America wants it too—but it is aly enjoying a moderate economic revival of the sort the Europeans would kill for, and is also involved in negotiating a similar, transpacific pact, on which it can focus its efforts if the spying row makes dealing with the Europeans too difficult.而且,跨大西洋自由贸易协议一旦达成,欧洲将成为最大的收益方。它急需这笔协议推动经济发展、带来额外增长(另见文)。美国也需要,但它的经济已经处于温和的复苏状态,而这样的增长速度正是欧洲竭力想达到的。而且美国也正筹备商议一个类似的跨太平洋协议,这样一来,如果窃听风波严重影响到了它和欧洲国家的谈判,它还可以调整重心,转移到跨太平洋协议上来。It won’t stop the snooping窃听活动不会就此停息Finally, there is the pointlessness of the threat. Even if European governments did cut intelligence links with the Americans, that would not stop the spying. America would continue to conduct operations against all but a handful of truly close allies, such as Canada and Britain. Better to work alongside the Americans, than to treat them as enemies.最后要说的是,此时相挟,毫无意义。就算欧洲国家政府切断与美方的情报线,窃听活动也不会就此停息。除英国和加拿大等少数心腹盟友,美国会继续对所有人实施监控。与其把美国当做敌人,还不如和它并肩作战。None of this changes America’s need to discipline its spies for its own sake. As this newspaper made clear when the Snowden scandal broke, Americans need a much clearer idea of what is being done in their name. But Europe has most to lose from a transatlantic row. So why start one?美国有必要为了自己,好好整顿一下情报部门了。这一点是一切都无法改变的。正如本报在斯诺登丑闻被爆时明确所说,美国需要更清楚地弄明白,(间谍)正以美国的名义在干些什么。但欧洲如果因这起跨大西洋窃听案而和美国闹僵,将会是最大失败者。所以,又何必呢?201307/247536

  Business商业报道Corporate transparency公司透明化Measuring mud离析淤积物How transparent are the worlds biggest listed companies?世界上最大的上市公司透明程度到底如何Clear envelopes have yet to catch on透明的信封,要流行还尚需时日ARE you cheating on your spouse?你正对自己的配偶不忠吗?If so, please stand up and declare it.如果是这样,请站起来承认。Total silence? What virtuous ers The Economist has.全都沉默?《经济学人》的读者是何其品德高尚啊。Trying to measure corruption is a bit like surveying adultery.尝试去测量腐败的程度就有一点像是调查婚外情。Those who indulge in it are unlikely to admit it.深陷其中的人们可不愿意主动承认。So when surveying big companies, Transparency International, an anti-corruption watchdog, asks a different question:于是调查大公司时,反腐败监管机构透明国际问了个不一样的问题:how transparent are you?你的透明程度如何?Its latest survey, “Transparency in Corporate Reporting”, looks at the worlds 105 biggest listed firms.它的最新调查“企业报告中的透明度”涵盖了世界上最大的105家上市公司。It measures three things.他衡量三方面情况。First, a companys internal rules and procedures to prevent corruption.首先是公司用于防范腐败的内部条例、流程。Second, the transparency of its organisational structure.第二是组织构架的透明度。Third, TI asks whether a firm publishes detailed financial information about its activities in every country where it operates,第三,TI将询问公司是否公布了每个它参与运营的国家中所做活动的详细财务信息,including how much it pays in taxes and royalties to each government.比如向政府交了多少税,交了多少版权费。Most firms in the sample have strict rules barring bribery.样本中的大部分企业都有严格的条例杜绝行、受贿。The average score on this count was 69%, up from 47% in , the last time TI conducted a similar exercise.这项标准的平均得分率从TI上次在年引导一个类似练习时的47%提到了现在的69%。Many firms also disclose ample details about which holding company owns which subsidiary, and so forth.许多企业还披露了哪家控股集团拥有哪家子公司等丰富的细节。Of the 105 companies, 45 scored a perfect 100% for organisational transparency.全部105家企业中,四十五家在企业透明度上的得分率都达到了完美的100%。On the third measure, however, most firms remained tight-lipped.但是在第三项指标上,许多企业都守口如瓶。This does not mean they have done anything illegal.这不表示他们就干过违法的事。Suppose a mining firm pays 10m to a government for a licence to dig.设想一个采矿业公司为了得到挖掘许可,向政府付了1000万美元。The fee may be legitimate, but the government may wish to keep it secret, to make it easier to embezzle.这项费用可能合法,但政府也可能希望在这件事上保密,让侵吞变得更容易。A company that is completely transparent may find it hard to win any more contracts from dodgy governments, which, alas, control a lot of the worlds natural resources.完全透明的公司也许会很难从乐于遮掩的政府那里赢得更多的合约,然而这些政府却控制着全世界的自然资源。Statoil, Norways state-controlled oil-and-gas firm, was by far the best performer, yet it scored only 50% on this measure.挪威的国家控股油气企业挪威国家石油公司在这项指标上只得了50%。More than a third of firms scored zero; the average was a meagre 4%.三分之一以上的企业得分为零;平均得分率只有可怜的4%。Campaigners have long complained that money from oil and minerals props up predatory governments, and lobbied firms to publish what they pay.竞选者一直在抱怨从石油和矿产得来的钱持了掠夺成性的政府,并且游说企业公布出他们付了的东西。Big Western miners and drillers have taken heed: the top five on TIs list are all involved in natural resources.西方大型挖掘与钻井公司已经留意到TI列表上的前五名都和自然资源有关。Many firms, however, are reluctant to answer probing questions from Western busybodies: Gazprom, Russias state-owned gas giant, scores zero on the first and third measures.但是许多公司不愿回答西方好事者提出的探查性问题:俄罗斯国有天然气巨头俄罗斯天燃气公司就在第一和第三问题上得分为零。TIs calculations are open to challenge.这项评估受到了挑战。Do Amazon, Google and Berkshire Hathaway deserve to be ranked near the bottom?亚马逊,谷歌,伯克希尔·哈撒韦应该排在接近底部的位置吗?Probably not.也许不是。These firms may not disclose as much as TI would like,这些企业公布的信息没有TI期待的那样多,but they are not in businesses where one is ever asked to bribe a cabinet minister to win a mining concession.但他们所处的商业环境也并不需要他们去贿赂内阁大臣以获得采矿许可。TI does a good job of focusing attention on a serious problem.TI在聚焦重要问题方面做得不错,But like The Economists adultery survey, its results should be taken with a handful of salt.但就像经济学人杂志的婚外情调查一样,其结果只应受到谨慎的参考。 /201307/248621

  And then on Saturdays, he would listen to the Grand Ole Opty that came out of Nashville.然后星期六的时候,他会听从纳什维尔而来的格兰德·奥雷·奥普帝演唱。Some of the people were Ernest Tubb, thats ancient.而有些人是欧内斯特·塔布,年代十分久远。Let me... Let the people know how old I am.让我…让人们知道我有多老。We had a club called the Sub-Debs.我们有一个叫做萨布德布斯的俱乐部。When you feel like youre in love dont just stand there.当你感觉自己恋爱的时候别出现在那里。We used to give teenage parties for all the kids around there, and thats where I met Joe.我们过去常常和所有在那里的孩子们中十几岁的年轻人聚会,而在那里我遇到了乔。I think I was around 17 years old.我想那时自己大约17岁。He would always ask me for a dance when the music was slow.当音乐舒缓下来的时候他总是请我跳舞。When the moon is shining bright.当月亮明亮的时候。He seemed very kind, very sweet.他看起来很善良,很动人。Youre not havin any fun then maybe youre out with the wrong one.你找不到任何乐子那也许是你找错了人。Joseph was in a group.约瑟夫是在一个团体组织当中。Besides me leaving singing with my sister, I started singing with him.除了我和我的唱歌之外,我和他也开始唱歌。And we would sing and harmonise together a lot.而我们一起唱歌合拍很多。Then the children came along and I kept singing.然后孩子们走过来,而我则一直唱歌。2300 Jackson St, in that little house.圣杰克逊2300号,就是那个小房子。I was the only one born in that house.我是唯一一个在那间房子中出生的人。We had two bedrooms in our home.在我们家里有两间卧室。And I and my sisters, Janet and La Toya, slept in the living room. 我和我的们,珍妮和特拉托娅,都睡在客厅里。We had a couch that let out into a bed.我们的一张沙发变成了床。My brothers slept in one room and that room had triple bunk beds.我的哥哥弟弟们睡在一个房间,那个房间有张三重双层床。And they slept on the bunk beds.而他们睡在双层床上。And then my parents slept in the other room.然后我的父母睡在另一个房间。I dont know how I squeezed all of us in that little house.我不知道我们大家是怎么挤在这样一间小房子当中。Having all my children when I was young and having them so close together.当我年轻的时候有了自己的孩子,他们是如此靠近。Every time I would get pregnant, and just, I was afraid to tell Joe.我每次怀的时候,我只是不敢告诉乔。We didnt believe in abortion, so thats why we got so many children.我们不相信堕胎,所以这就是为什么我们有这么多的孩子。The children around our neighbourhood, especially the boys, they were kind of bad, some of them.孩子们在我们的社区,特别是男孩们,他们中的一些人很坏。They would break in peoples cars and do things.他们会对人们的汽车搞破坏及做些别的事情。And our children were never allowed to go out at night or play with those kids.而我们的孩子们不允许晚上出去或和那些孩子在一起。They werent really social with the rest of the neighbourhood.他们真的不是像其他社区一样。They clung to each other, and thats how the Jackson were raised.他们喜欢抓着对方,这就是杰克逊被养大的地方。Poor? I mean, that was a way of life.可怜?我的意思是,那只是一种生活方式。We had plenty of food to eat.我们有足够的食物。We were like all the other kids in the area.我们就像在该地区所有其他的孩子们一样。Michael never thought he was poor when he was young,迈克尔从来没想过在他年轻时的贫穷,because he did not know what poor was. He thought everyone.因为他不知道什么是贫穷。他认为每个人都是这样。 201306/245732


  You may have heard of supertasters.你可能也听过有这样一个群体—品尝师。These are people who, it was discovered, are carrying around extra taste buds on theirtongues, making the world of eating much more intense.他们是被挖掘出的特殊人群,他们的舌周围广泛分布着味蕾,让吃东西变得异常有感觉。Its not at all an unusual thing: the latest data suggest that oneout of every four people is a supertaster.这并不稀奇:最新数据显示每四个人中就有一个人是品尝师。For them, eating is amuch richer, more flavorful experience than for the rest of us.相比于我们这些普通人,他们吃东西时会有更丰富、更美味的体验。Still, before you get too jealous if youre not a supertaster, it turns out there are drawbacks tohaving a technicolor tongue.然而,你也不用因为自己无法成为超级品尝师而对他们羡慕不已。A study that looks specifically at supertasters over the age of sixty-five found that they have more colon polyps than folks who arent so taste bud gifted.事实明,拥有那样华丽的舌头也会带来某些不好的影响。专门对65岁以上的品尝师展开的一项调查研究发现,他们比那些未被赋予超常味蕾的人们患结肠息肉的概率更高。Colon polyps are the things you want to have removed before they become cancerous, which iswhy all folks fifty and older should get a yearly colon exam.结肠息肉容易发生癌变,因而它是人人得而诛之,这也是为什么人们上了50岁每年都得进行一次肠息肉检查。Why do supertasters have more colon polyps?为什么品尝师们容易患上结肠息肉?It isnt known.具体原因还待考。But supertasters also weigh more onaverage than non-supertasters, and weight increases cancer risk.但有一点,品尝师们的体重一般都比普通人重,而体重会增加患癌症的风险。The reason for this may be assimple as it sounds: eating is more fun when you taste in 3-D.而他们体重偏重的原因就跟大家听起来一样:多方位的品尝食品时,饮食让人倍感无穷乐趣。Some researchers think, however, that the problem may not just be an increase in pleasure.然而,很多研究人员又认为原因很可能不仅仅是在饮食当中增加了乐趣。Those extra taste buds may also drive people away from food thats good for them, such as vegetables,because the taste of, say, a brussels sprout is just too intense.这些多出来的味蕾会让品尝师们对一些有益身体健康的食物敬而远之。这是因为这些食物的滋味,比如说抱子甘蓝,就太重了。 201405/297923



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