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呼和浩特那里有永久去毛的内蒙古呼和浩特治疗腋臭多少钱Daimler has given frazzled employees the opportunity to delete automatically all emails received while they are on holiday. The carmaker’s move underlines what everyone aly knows: personal technology can abrade the self. Finding several thousand un messages makes one’s first day back at work peculiarly horrible.戴姆勒(Daimler)公司已经准许其疲惫不堪的雇员自动删除度假期间收到的全部邮件。这家汽车生产商的做法凸显了一个众所周知的问题:个体技术(personal technology)可能折磨自我。在重返工作的第一天发现数千封未读邮件实在让人不寒而栗。This is not the fault of device makers, social networks or mobile data operators. It is a consequence of our determination, fed by professional and personal paranoia, to use all their products and services at once. The malady’s symptoms are a fractured attention span, insomnia triggered by exposure to blue light and an ever wider, shallower friendship group.这并不能归咎于设备生产商、社交网络或移动数据运营商。我们是自食其果:出于职业的和个人的偏执,我们决定同时使用全部这些产品和务。这种顽疾的症状表现为注意力碎片化,暴露于蓝光所导致的失眠,以及更广阔却也更肤浅的朋友圈。I spotted a typical sufferer last month on a train rolling through Concord, Massachusetts, home of Henry David Thoreau, a nature philosopher who believed that in 1840s America: “The incessant anxiety and strain of some is a well-nigh incurable form of disease.” True to that diagnosis, our contemporary victim was tetchily switching between mobile phones as bandwidth fluctuated. He was also juggling an iPad and a pager. He was organising a business trip to Indianapolis. He should have alighted at Concord and thrown his devices in Walden Pond, the lake where Thoreau swam after retreating from modern life.上个月,我在火车上发现了一名典型“患者”。这列火车当时正穿越亨利#8226;戴维#8226;梭罗(Henry David Thoreau)的家乡,马萨诸塞州的康科德(Concord, MA)。这位自然主义哲学家认为,在19世纪40年代的美国:“一些人持续不断的焦虑和压力几乎成为了一种不可治愈的疾病。”如同梭罗的诊断,这位当代“患者”随着带宽波动而恼怒地在几个手机之间切换,他还摆弄着一部iPad和一个寻呼机。他在组织一次前往印第安纳波利斯的商务旅行。他真应该在康科德下车,然后把他的设备都扔到瓦尔登湖(Walden Pond)湖里去,也就是梭罗从现代生活退隐后游泳的湖泊。Each technological revolution triggers a reaction against it. Thoreau was in part rebelling against the railway that ran, and still runs, past Walden. This not only redistributed Americans – some doubtless on business trips to Indianapolis – in a manner he thought unnecessary. It also stimulated written communication in the form of letters. Thoreau believed most of these were a waste of time. Similarly, when mass production became a spring tide in the 19th century, British polemicists such as William Morris and John Ruskin were there to wave it back.每一场技术革命都会引发相应的反对。梭罗在一定程度上反抗当时经过(现在也依然经过)瓦尔登湖的铁路。这条铁路不仅是用一种他觉得没有必要的方式把美国人重新分配到各个地方(其中一些人无疑是在前往印第安纳波利斯的商务旅行的途中),还刺激了书信形式的文字交流。梭罗认为其中绝大部分只是浪费时间而已。类似的,当大批量生产成为19世纪的大潮之时,威廉#8226;莫里斯(William Morris)和约翰#8226;拉斯金(John Ruskin)等英国辩论家希望将这股浪潮推回去。The reaction to intrusive information technology is inchoate so far. Some Californian cafés ban Google Glass, which they see as spywear masquerading as eyewear. There are sporadic media storms about the proportion of internet content that is pornographic. German singer Cris Cosmo had a minor hit with a ditty entitled “Schiess auf Facebook” a few years back, but social media helped foster its success. No latter-day Thoreau has yet gained popular traction with a philosophy of digital detoxification. There is plainly a gap in the market.迄今为止,对侵入式的信息技术的反抗才刚刚抬头。一些加州的咖啡馆禁止使用谷歌眼镜,他们认为这是一种伪装成眼镜的间谍器材。还有一些零星的针对互联网色情内容比重的媒体风暴。几年前,德国歌手克里斯#8226;科斯莫(Cris Cosmo)有一首小有名气的单曲《Schiess auf Facebook》,歌曲是抨击Facebook的,但正是社交媒体帮助促成了这首歌的成功。当代的梭罗们还没有拿出凝聚人气的数字排毒哲学。这显然是一块市场空白。One part of Thoreau’s argument was anti-consumerist and sits in useful counterpoise to the idea that the latest Apple product is sufficient reward for working 50-plus hours a week. Having retreated to the woods, he lived on just over in his first year. This included the cost of building a hut, though not rent.梭罗的部分论点在于反消费主义,这有助于抗衡“苹果最新产品足够回报一周工作50多个小时”的观念。归隐山林后,梭罗仅花费了62美元便度过了第一年。其中还包括建造小屋的费用(尽管梭罗没有选择租房子)。The British economist, John Maynard Keynes, approaching the work-life balance from a slightly different angle in 1930, argued that rising industrial productivity would result in Britons needing to work only 15 hours a week. His thinking converged with Thoreau’s in imagining that individuals wanted more time to relax in preference to having more goods and services.1930年,英国经济学家约翰#8226;梅纳德#8226;凯恩斯(John Maynard Keynes)从一个略微不同的角度来探讨工作与生活的平衡。他认为,工业生产率的提高最终会使英国人每周仅需工作15小时。他的想法和梭罗相同之处在于,他们都认为比起得到更多的商品和务,人们更想要更多的休闲时间。Most do not. This is just as well for the staff of Daimler, who would lose their jobs if there was no demand for top-end cars that are functionally little different from cheap runabouts. The debate focuses on a purportedly unfair division of the spoils of economic activity rather than an unjust split of free time. By this latter measure, a typical banker is scraping by while a struggling actor is rolling in it.但大部分人并非如此。戴姆勒公司的员工也是这样。顶级汽车与便宜的汽车在功能上并无太大区别,但若没有对顶级汽车的需求,他们也就失业了。这场辩论集中于经济活动成果的不公平分配上,而非闲暇时间的不公平分配。如果依据后一个标准,一个典型的家在勉强度日,而一个苦苦挣扎的演员则享用不尽。Thoreau believed the mass of men lived lives of quiet desperation. What he had not grasped was that the mass of men do not care if they believe their next door neighbour’s life is marginally more desperate than their own.梭罗认为大多数人都生活在默默的绝望中。但他没认识到的是,只要大众认为隔壁邻居的人生比他们自己略微更加绝望,他们就不在乎这种状况。I disembarked at Concord while the multitasking businessman whizzed on down the rails. Walden Pond is busy these days, and today Thoreau’s daily swim would probably have ended in a collision with a kayak. But there is a satisfactorily lonely pool further into the woods, beside which the digital jitterbug can sit and purge the ones and zeros from his system.我在康科德站下车,而那个手忙脚乱的商人继续坐着火车飞速前行。如今的瓦尔登湖很繁忙,如果现在梭罗还每天游泳的话,可能会撞到某一艘皮艇。但是,在树林深处还有一个令人满意的孤寂的池子。被数字生活搞得神经紧张的人可以坐在水池旁,忘掉自己系统中的二进制数字。Elevated by my temporary rejection of modernity, I returned to a full inbox, 11-hour working days and commuting between home and work PCs with two mobile phones, a BlackBerry and an iPad. A business trip to Indianapolis seems inevitable.短暂地逃离现代性之后,我精神振作地回到了收件箱满满、每天工作11个小时的生活,带着两部手机,一部黑莓(BlackBerry)、一部iPad穿梭于家中的电脑和工作地点的电脑之间。前往印第安纳波利斯的商务旅行看来不可避免。 /201408/324414乌兰察布市妇幼保健人民中医院做丰胸手术多少钱 Apple appears poised to change the way Americans pay for stuff. Or at least, it will try.苹果(Apple)似乎要改变美国人的付方式了。或者至少,他们准备尝试一下。Sources confirm several reports that the iPhone 6, expected to be introduced on Tuesday, will include technology that will turn the device into a mobile wallet that could be used to pay for items at retail stores. Apple’s mobile wallet will be based on NFC, or near field communications, a technology that uses radio communications to transmit data and that works in a growing number of point-of-sale systems. The iPhone’s Touch ID fingerprint scanner will be used to authenticate users, and Apple AAPL -0.83% has teamed up with credit card companies to make the service broadly useful, the sources, who agreed to speak on condition of anonymity, said.消息源确认了iPhone 6将包含一项新技术,可以将移动设备作为钱包使用,从而在商店购买物品。这项移动钱包技术将采用NFC,也就是利用无线电来发射数据的近场通信技术(near field communications)。该技术已被越来越多的销售终端系统所采用。匿名消息源表示,iPhone将采用Touch ID指纹扫描来鉴别用户身份,苹果也将与信用卡公司合作,扩大这项务的应用范围。An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment.苹果的一位女发言人拒绝对此发表。Apple, which aly has payment credentials for some 800 million people globally through iTunes accounts, has long been expected to make a bid to dominate mobile payments.苹果通过iTunes账户,已经获得了全球范围内大约8亿用户的付授权。公司要争取主宰移动付领域,这也早在人们预料之中。While Apple’s move is certain to shake up the mobile wallet market, the company’s success is far from guaranteed. And it comes at a time when the utility of digital wallets is being called into question, even as other forms of mobile payments are taking off.尽管苹果此举必然会引起移动钱包市场的震动,但苹果能否成功却远未确定。数字钱包的实用性究竟如何尚存疑问,而其他移动付手段也正在逐渐兴起。Indeed, there is no longer a mobile payments market, but rather, several mobile payments markets.确实,这不是一个移动付市场,而是好几个移动付市场。Mobile wallets, which were expected to take the world by storm, have languished in the past few years. Giants like Google, PayPal, wireless carriers, and major retail chains, as well as promising startups like Square, have all struggled to make wallets popular. After years of effort, just .1 billion in purchases came from mobile wallets last year, according to Javelin Strategy, a research firm. That’s just a tiny fraction of the roughly .5 trillion in annual retail payments in the ed States.本以为将如风暴般席卷全球的移动钱包,在过去几年中可谓命途多舛。谷歌(Google)、贝宝(Paypal)等巨头、无线运营商、大型连锁店,以及Square等前途光明的初创公司,在推广移动钱包上都步履维艰。根据研究公司Javelin Strategy的数据,在多年的努力后,通过移动钱包完成的交易额在去年仅有31亿美元。相对于美国去年零售交易额的大约4.5万亿美元来说,这只是极小的一部分。The challenges have been myriad. Google’s Wallet has been hamstrung by the company’s inability to get enough partners—most notably merchants and credit card companies—on board. Google also struggled to overcome roadblocks put up by some wireless carriers, who were promoting the own rival wallet.这其中遭遇的挑战数不胜数。由于谷歌无法找到足够的合作伙伴——尤其是商家和信用卡公司,公司的钱包产品萎靡不振。谷歌还难以克某些无线运营商设置的障碍,后者也在推广自己的钱包类产品。That service, which is backed by Verizon, ATamp;T, and T-Mobile, struggled as well, first because it was plagued by delays, and later, because of its ill-fated name: Isis. After the emergence of the violent jihadist group in Iraq by the same name earlier this year, the carriers announced that they would ditch the brand. Just this week, CEO Mike Abbott announced that the service would be renamed Softcard.而由威瑞森通讯(Verizon)、美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)和T-Mobile开发的钱包务也一样经历着困顿。起初是因为这项务一直跳票,随后又因为那个倒霉的名字:Isis。随着今年早些时候拥有同样名字的伊拉克暴力圣战组织兴起,运营商宣布他们准备放弃这个品牌名。就在这周,Isis的首席执行官迈克o阿尔伯特宣布这项务将更名为Softcard。Square, for its part, pulled its Wallet app in May, replacing it with Order, an app that allows users to order ahead and skip the line at local restaurants.而另一方面,Square在今年5月放弃了其钱包业务Wallet,推出了新产品Order,这项应用可以让顾客提前预定餐馆,免去了排队的烦恼。From a consumer standpoint, all these efforts suffered from the same pitfalls: acceptance at merchants was spotty and paying by phone was not necessarily more convenient than paying with plastic.从顾客的角度来看,这些努力都走入了同一个误区:并非所有商家都接受这种付方式,而用手机付也并没有比信用卡付更方便,这让它显得可有可无。Some analysts believe that Apple, with its market clout and experience designing consumer products, could change the dynamics. In particular, the inclusion of NFC technology in the iPhone, could encourage more merchants to upgrade their point-of-sale system so they can accept mobile payments from both iPhones and the growing number of Android phones that are also equipped with NFC.一些分析家相信,拥有强大市场影响力、拥有丰富的设计消费品经验的苹果能够改变这一现状。尤其是包含NFC技术的iPhone会促使更多的商家升级他们的销售终端系统,从而接受iPhone以及越来越多同样配有NFC技术的安卓(Android)手机的移动付。“Smartphones didn’t take off until Apple came in,” says Mary Monahan, research director for mobile at Javelin. “Tablets didn’t take off until Apple came in. A lot of people are hoping that this is a game changer.”Javelin的移动产品研究总监玛丽o莫纳汉表示:“智能手机在苹果加入后才开始高速发展,平板电脑也是在苹果加入后才广泛流行起来。许多人希望苹果能够化腐朽为神奇。”But recent publicity about hacking into Apple accounts of celebrities could pose a new obstacle for the company.但最近美国明星的苹果账户被黑事件传得沸沸扬扬,将会给苹果造成新的麻烦。“For this to work, Apple has to garner much more confidence in the security of what they offer,” says Tim Bajarin, a veteran Apple analyst with Creative Strategies.Creative Strategies的资深苹果分析师蒂姆o巴加林表示:“如果苹果要在移动付领域取得成功,就必须在安全性上获得比现在多得多的信任。”In the meantime, other parts of the mobile payment market are growing quickly. Javelin estimates consumers spend more than billion in “mobile commerce” last year. The category includes not only e-commerce purchases made with mobile phones or tablets, but also purchases of services like rides through apps like Uber and Lyft, deliveries of food and merchandise through apps like Postmates and Seamless GrubHub, and others. Those in-app payments have quickly become a multi-billion business dominated by companies like PayPal’s Braintree and Stripe, one of the hottest payment companies to emerge in recent years.与此同时,移动付市场的其他领域正在蓬勃发展。Javelin估计消费者去年在“移动商务”上花费了超过560亿美元。这不仅包括使用手机或平板电脑完成的网上购物,还包括通过应用购买务,如Uber和Lyft的打车务、Postmates和Seamless GrubHub的食物和商品快递等等。这些通过应用实现的消费已经很快形成了规模达数十亿美元的市场。贝宝的Braintree以及近年来最炙手可热的付公司Stripe成为了该领域中的领头羊。Finally, mobile person-to-person payments, which are enabled by banks and by companies like PayPal and Square, are also growing, though the total number of transactions remain small. It’s not clear whether the iPhone’s mobile wallet will enable these kinds of transactions.最后,由以及贝宝和Square等公司提供的个人对个人(p2p)移动付也在日渐成长,不过该领域的交易总额仍然较小。iPhone的移动钱包是否会持这类交易,目前尚不得而知。 /201409/327316内蒙古呼和浩特市治疗祛斑价格

呼和浩特双眼皮手术费用呼和浩特歪鼻整形手术 Snapchat has some new competition in the market for selfie photos that disappear after a few seconds.在“阅后即焚”式的自拍照片分享应用市场,Snapchat又迎来了新的竞争对手。On Tuesday, Facebook introduced Slingshot, an app for sharing messages and images with friends that vanish soon after they view them. With the new service, Facebook is challenging Snapchat, a startup that popularized the idea of disappearing messages and has quickly become one of the technology industry’s darlings.本周二,Facebook推出了一款名为Slingshot的新应用,用户可利用它与好友分享信息和图片,而这些信息和图片在对方看过之后很快就会消失。Facebook旨在通过这项新务来挑战新创公司Snapchat。后者普及了“阅后即焚”式的信息分享理念,而且已经很快发展成为业界争相追逐的新宠。Slingshot puts its own spin on socalled ephemeral messsaging by requiring anyone who receives a photo to respond to the sender. If they don’t, they are unable to open the original image and instead can only see a pixelated screen and nothing more. The reasoning is to ensure people engage with one another and don’t simply receive photos without contributing. Of course, this is also serves Facebook’s interest by increasing use of the service.Slingshot的独特亮点在于所谓的短暂信息传送机制,即要求接受图片的其他用户必须先回应发送者。如果不回应,接收者就无法打开原始图片,只能看到像素化的图片仅此而已。这个功能可确保用户双方交流互动,而不只是简单地接收别人的图片。当然,随着Slingshot用户数量的不断增加,这项功能也符合Facebook自身的利益需求。“With Slingshot, we wanted to build something where everybody is a creator and nobody is just a spectator,” Facebook said in a blog post introducing the new product. “When everyone participates, there’s less pressure, more creativity and even the little things in life can turn into awesome shared experiences. This is what Slingshot is all about.”“每个人都是创作者,没有人是旁观者,我们希望借助Slingshot来构筑这样的氛围,”Facebook在一篇介绍这一新产品的客文章中这样写道。“当每个人都参与其中时,压力就会减轻,创意就会越来越多,甚至生活中微不足道的小事也能转化为令人惊叹的分享体验。这就是Slingshot的全部意义所在。”The Slingshot crew even took the time to mention (: take a swipe at) Snapchat in its introductory message: “We’ve enjoyed using Snapchat to send each other ephemeral messages and expect there to be a variety of apps that explore this new way of sharing.” But Facebook feels it can take the game up a notch. “With Slingshot, we saw an opportunity to create something new and different: a space where you can share everyday moments with lots of people at once,” the post said.Slingshot的开发人员甚至煞费苦心地在介绍信息中提到(实质上是抨击)了Snapchat:“我们欣赏利用Snapchat来彼此发送短暂信息的做法,我们期望未来能出现各种各样探索这种全新分享方式的类似应用。”但Facebook认为Slingshot可 以将这场竞争游戏提升一个档次。“有了Slingshot,我们等于看到了创造出与众不同全新交际空间的机遇。在这个空间中,大家可以与很多人即时分享每一天的精瞬间,”Facebook在文中这样写到。Users can also send s from a smartphone camera, add a message commenting on a photo, or draw an image in response.Slingshot用户也可以发送智能手机拍摄的视频,还可以在照片上添加信息或者以绘图的形式进行回复。Facebook FB 1.86% had offered to buy Snapchat for billion last year, but the company’s young founders rejected an acquisition. It seemed like an astounding decision at the time considering Snapchat had no revenue. But Facebook didn’t get angry it decided to try to get even. Some may even consider Slingshot to be a kind of Snapchat 2.0 or Snapchat clone.去年,Facebook 曾出价30亿美元,希望收购Snapchat,但这家公司年轻的创始人们拒绝了这个收购提议。鉴于Snapchat并无任何收益来源,因此当时的决定非常出人意料。但Facebook并没有动怒它决意尝试以实际行动来报复,于是Slingshot便应运而生。有些人甚至认为Slingshot就是Snapchat的2.0版或复制版。The new app joins a cast of others aly owned by Facebook including the chatting app Messenger and Instagram, a popular photo and service. Facebook also recently acquired the messaging service WhatsApp for billion.除了Slingshot之外,Facebook旗下的应用阵营还包括聊天应用Messenger以及大受欢迎的照片和视频务应用Instagram。最近,Facebook又以190亿美元的价格收购了通讯务应用WhatsApp。Facebook’s success with Slingshot is hardly assured considering it has failed in the past to make much headway in the messaging space. Last month, it shut down a Snapchatlike app called Poke a year after its release.考虑到Facebook在信息传递领域的大力开拓上曾有过失败的经历,因此现在我们还很难说Facebook推出的Slingshot一定能取得成功。就在上个月,Facebook才刚下架了去年才发布的类Snapchat应用Poke。 /201406/307065内蒙古呼和浩特市除皱的费用

呼和浩特253医院修眉多少钱What can be said about Apple Inc.#39;s upcoming iPhones?对苹果(Apple Inc.)即将问世的新iPhone有什么可以说说的?What we do know is that the company#39;s suppliers in Asia are working simultaneously on two models. One is a higher-end design with a metal shell, the other a lower-performance one with non-metal shells in multiple colors, which sounds reminiscent of the route it went with iPods.我们确实知道的是,苹果在亚洲的供应商正在同时开发两种款型的iPhone手机。其中一款较为高端,有金属外壳;而另外一款功能较为简单的手机则没有金属外壳,不过这款手机有多种颜色可供选择。这种高低搭配使人不禁回想起苹果当年在iPod上用过的策略。Launch dates haven#39;t been finalized, but The Wall Street Journal reports it could be possibly summer for the upmarket phone, as people familiar with the situation say production will begin this quarter. The lower-cost one is being developed simultaneously but will likely come to the market later.虽然新款iPhone的推出时间尚未最终确定,但据《华尔街日报》报道,其中的那款高档手机可能在今年夏天面市,因为据知情人士说,这款手机的生产工作将于本季度开始。而那款成本较低的手机也正在开发之中,但面市的时间预计会晚一些。Rumors of a larger-sized iPhone seem unfounded for now, despite ripples that Apple might cave into the trend for big screens (and despite fears that the phones may stretch forever more .) This is not just because of Apple#39;s philosophy that a smartphone should be small enough to control with one hand, but due to economics, too. One person with direct knowledge of the projects explains that the company gains advantages of scale by sticking with the 4-inch screen size of the current iteration, so it has no plans to change phone dimensions this year.尽管据传苹果可能会屈从于大屏幕手机受到消费者欢迎的市场潮流(虽然已经有人担心手机的屏幕可能会变得越来越大),但到目前为止,有关苹果将推出屏幕较大iPhone的传言似乎还无法得到实。苹果不推出大屏幕手机不仅是因为它一向秉承智能手机应该小到单手能自如操控的理念,还有经济方面的考虑。一位直接了解iPhone项目的人士解释说,苹果坚持让其手机屏幕保持目前这种4英寸大小获得了规模效益,所以它今年没有改变手机尺寸的计划。One question that remains is how Apple will present the lower-cost iPhone to consumers. While surely aimed at attracting a non-elite clientele, it#39;s unclear whether this is a play to attract straying users in its traditional turf, or to target the vast market of first-time smartphone users in developing economies. Either way, Apple has a balancing act of making its products more affordable, while keeping that exclusive luster that draws consumers to the brand in the first place.一个依然没有的问题是,苹果将如何向消费者介绍那款成本较低的新iPhone。虽然这款手机肯定旨在吸引那些非精英阶层消费者,但人们不清楚的是,苹果推出这种新手机究竟是要吸引其传统客户群里那些喜欢不断更新手机的人,还是将目标对准了发展中国家首次购买智能手机的庞大人群。无论怎样,苹果都需要在以下两个方面之间掌握好平衡:它一方面要让消费者能负担得起自己的产品,另一方面又要保持住苹果产品的独特光,毕竟消费者首先正是因为这种光才喜欢上苹果品牌的。 /201304/235312 Leave it to Larry Ellison to appoint two successors.The founder of software giant Oracle is known for a lifestyle that seems to abide by the more-is-more mantra. With an estimated personal wealth of billion, Ellison has built a sprawling Japanese-style home in Silicon Valley, purchased enviable property in Malibu, sponsored last year’s America’s Cup champion, and two years ago bought an entire Hawaiian island.His succession announcement on Thursday appears to be yet another case of excess.Ellison appointed not one but two people to fill his shoes. Co-presidents Mark Hurd, the former Hewlett-Packard CEO who joined Oracle in 2010, and the company’s longtime chief financial officer Safra Catz got the nod to split the role held by the 70-year-old tech mastermind.Oracle will become the fourth Fortune 500 to have two CEOs, joining a group that currently includes American Financial Group, KKR, and Whole Foods. In the last 25 years, only 21 companies in the Fortune 500 have used the co-CEO structure. (There are, of course, companies with smaller revenue that have adopted the dual-CEO approach.) Oracle—No. 82 on this year’s list—will be the 22nd.The dual-leader setup is rare for a reason.It “causes conflict,” results in “negative performance by teams,” and gives the two leaders “hostile mindsets,” according to Lindred Greer, an assistant professor of organizational behavior at Stanford Graduate School of Business.Oh, is that all?“When you have power, it becomes how you see yourself. And once you have that position, you’re sensitive to threats that might jeopardize it,” says Greer, whose research focuses on team power struggles. One such potential threat? A co-CEO, with the same title and responsibilities.Not all of these arrangements have been total nightmares, but it’s safe to say that many of them have, at the very least, flirted with complete disaster.When Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia introduced a co-CEO structure in July 2008 with Wenda Millard and Robin Marino, its chairman Charles Koppelman explained the strategy by saying, “One plus one equals three.” Less than a year later, the “one-plus-one” strategy turned out to be a loser. Millard left after the company lost .7 million in 2008. “There was tension,” Koppelman said after Millard’s departure.Sandy Weill and John Reed, co-CEOs at Citigroup from 1998 to 2000, clashed, says Lawrence Hrebiniak, professor emeritus of management at Wharton, since they were both “strong people with strong views” when it came to determining the company’s direction. “In that case, the duality didn’t really do them very good.”At SAP, Jim Snabe and Bill McDermott ran the company jointly for three-and-a-half years when it spent more than billion on acquisitions and saw the company’s stock price increase by 70%. The company also lost ground to cloud specialist Salesforce.com during that same timeframe. Snabe ceded power to his counterpart in 2013, citing the need to “begin the next phase of my career, closer to my family.”Chipotle is run by two executives, Steve Ells and Monty Moran, and it’s been one of the few stars of the restaurant world of late. But its leadership—specifically the cost of operating under two CEOs—drew scrutiny in May when 77% of shareholders voted against its executive pay plan.Publicis and Omnicom pulled the plug on a merger that would have created the world’s largest advertising company in large part because of a clash of CEO egos.And then there are other times, when co-CEOs operate relatively seamlessly.Cousins Henry Kravis and George Roberts—two of the three founders of KKR—have overseen the best-known corporate buy-out company side-by-side for decades.For the last four years, CEOs John Mackey and Walter Robb have run Whole Foods. Mackey co-founded Whole Foods in 1980 and Robb joined in 1991, a year before the company went public. Robb was named co-CEO alongside Mackey in 2010. Since then, Whole Foods has continued its rapid-fire expansion and seen its stock price increase from .73 per share to now, (though that’s down from a high of .13 last year.)Under co-CEOs, start-up Birchbox, which sells monthly subscriptions to beauty samples, and eyewear company Warby Parker have raised .9 million and 5.5 million, respectively.The common th in these successful examples is that one—if not both—CEOs founded the company. “Generally, when multiple people are involved, they must have complementary skills or assets, they must be willing to work together, recognize the other’s expertise in areas, and give in to the other based on that expertise,” Hrebiniak says. People who built a business from the bottom up can tick more of those boxes than two individuals who are thrown into a shared leadership role without an existing side-by-side relationship.Based on her research, Greer says that power struggles can be defused when co-leaders are as equal as they can be in terms of status and privilege, down to their salary and office size.Catz and Hurd are certainly well compensated—both earned a base salary of 0,000 and racked in total compensation of about million in 2013. And, to Hrebiniak’s point, though the two new CEOs don’t have a founders’ connection, they’ve managed to balance each other out for the past four years, carving out opposite but correlative niches. Catz focuses on internal finance, legal, and manufacturing matters, while Hurd handle outside affairs, like sales and service.The wild card in this arrangement is Ellison, who has opted to take on a role as chief technology officer at Oracle. Fortune’s Adam Lashinksyargues that Thursday’s management shuffle was largely for show. “The most shocking thing about Thursday’s bombshell announcement that Larry Ellison is stepping down as CEO of Oracle is how little will change,” he wrote.Hrebiniak agrees. “Three people are running the show. What do we call that? A trilogy?” he says.Oracle better figure this all out soon. Having two CEOs is tough. The only thing that might be worse is having three.拉里·埃里森任命了两名接班人。从软件巨头甲骨文公司(Oracle)创始人拉里?埃里森平素的生活方式看,就知道他应该非常信奉“多多益善”这个准则。坐拥预计460亿美元个人资产的埃里森在硅谷建造了一座奢华的日式豪宅,在马里布也购买了令人艳羡的海景别墅,去年还赞助了美洲杯帆船赛,两年前还在夏威夷购买了一整座岛屿。上周四,埃里森的接班声明也表现出了另一种“多多益善”的意思。70岁的埃里森选择了两个人共同执掌甲骨文的CEO权杖,其中一个是2010年加盟甲骨文的前惠普公司(Hewlett-Packard)CEO马克?赫德,另一个是在甲骨文任首席财务官多年的萨弗拉?卡茨。甲骨文将成为目前第四家同时拥有两名CEO的财富500强企业,另外三家分别是美国金融集团(American Financial Group)、KKR和全食公司(Whole Foods)。另外,在过去25年里,只有21家公司曾经使用过联席CEO的组织架构。(当然,也有很多规模稍小的公司使用这种模式。)作为今年财富500强榜单上的第82位,甲骨文也将成为史上第22家由两人共同掌权的财富500强企业。联席CEO的例子之所以罕见,是有其原因的。斯坦福商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)组织行为学助理教授林德莱德?格里尔指出,联席CEO结构会“引起冲突,导致团队的负面表现”,并且导致两名CEO互相产生“敌对心态”。那么,这就是全部原因吗?格里尔的研究主要集中在团队权力冲突领域。他表示:“当你拥有了权力,你看待自己的角度就发生了变化。一旦你坐上这个位子,你对可能危及自身权力的威胁就会非常敏感。”其中一个潜在威胁,就是和你享有同样头衔和职权的另一名CEO。并不是说所有的联席CEO架构都以噩梦告终,但我们可以大胆地说,至少许多采用这种管理架构的公司都招致彻头彻尾的灾难。比如,MSO公司在2008年7月调整了管理架构,由温达?米勒德和罗宾?马利诺两人共同担任CEO,当时该公司董事长查尔斯?考普曼曾这样解释这一战略:“一加一等于三。”结果还不到一年,“一加一”战略就宣告失败了。2008年,MSO公司宣告亏损1570万美元,米勒德随后出走。在米勒德离职后,考普曼也坦承“两名CEO关系紧张”。1998年到2000年,桑迪?威尔和约翰?里德曾在花旗集团(Citigroup)担任联席CEO,后来二人也是反目成仇。沃顿商学院(Wharton)管理学荣誉教授劳伦斯?贺比尼亚克表示,在决定公司发展方向的问题上,两位CEO都是“有着强硬观点的强势领导人,因此‘两驾马车’的领导架构对他们的效果并不好。”在SAP公司,吉姆?斯内布和比尔?麦克德莫特也曾共同治理这家公司三年半的时间。在此期间,SAP斥140亿美元巨资大举进行收购,同期SAP的股价也增长了70%之外。但也正是在同一时期,SAP开始在云计算专家Salesforce.com的面前丢城失地。2013年斯内布辞去CEO职务,完全将权力交给麦克德莫特,他本人称,自己需要“开始职业生涯的下一个阶段,多陪家人。”Chipotle目前由两位CEO史蒂夫?埃尔斯和蒙蒂?莫兰共同执掌。Chipotle也是餐饮界近年来冉冉升起的少数明星企业之一。但它的领导层也引起了一些批评,尤其是两位CEO的成本问题。今年五月,该公司77%的股东投票反对高管薪酬方案。广告巨头阳狮集团(Publicis)和宏盟集团(Omnicom)合并失败,使双方共建全球最大广告公司的雄心化作泡影,其中一个重要的原因就是两位CEO个性不合。不过,联席CEO合作愉快的例子还是有一些的。KKR公司三位创始人中的两人,亨利?克拉维斯和乔治?罗伯茨,是表兄弟,他们并肩执掌这家知名的企业收购公司已经几十年了。在过去4年,约翰?麦基和沃特?罗伯两人一直共同执掌全食公司。麦基于1980年参与创办了全食公司,而罗伯于1991年加入,次年全食公司正式上市。罗伯于2010年被任命为全食的联合CEO。从那时起,全食公司继续保持了火箭般的扩张速度,股价也从每股13.73美元升至现在的39美元(去年最高时曾一度达到63.13美元)。在联席CEO架构下,创业公司Birchbox(主要卖美容产品样品)和眼镜零售商Warby Parker公司分别成功融资7190万美元和1.155亿美元。在联席CEO架构实行得比较成功的公司中,有一点是不约而同的——那就是两名CEO中至少有一人是公司创始人。贺比尼亚克表示:“一般来说,如果涉及几个人,那么他们必须有互相补充的技能或资本,必须愿意互相共事,认识到对方在某些领域的特长,并且在这些领域要向对方让步。”与那些之前没有一起共事过就“空降”到联合CEO岗位上的人相比,企业创始人一般更能满足这几个条件。格里尔表示,根据她的研究显示,两位联席CEO之间在各方面越平等,越有助于消弥他们的权力斗争。这种平等大到地位和特权,小到薪水和办公室的大小。卡茨和赫德的薪水待遇显然是很不错的——两人的底薪都是95万美元,2013年,两人从公司领走的总薪酬都是4400万美元左右。在贺比尼亚克看来,虽然两位CEO都不是甲骨文的创始人,但他们在过去四年里一直维系着彼此的平衡,各自在相反但又相关的领域开拓。卡茨主要负责公司的内部财务、法务和生产事宜,而赫德主要负责销售和务等外部事宜。甲骨文此次安排的幕后推手正是埃里森本人,他决定“退而不休”,继续担任甲骨文首席技术官的角色。《财富》(Fortune)杂志的亚当?拉辛斯基认为,甲骨文的此次管理层洗牌很大程度上是作了一场秀。“上周四甲骨文传来拉里?埃里森卸任CEO的重磅消息,然而最令人震惊的事实却是,此次管理层的调整对甲骨文的影响其实非常小。”贺比尼亚克也认同这种观点:“这是一出三个人演的戏。我们应该怎样叫它?三部曲吗?”甲骨文最好早点找出解决方案来。有两个CEO就够麻烦了,更惶论有三个。内蒙古医学院第二附属医院做双眼皮开眼角多少钱内蒙古第253医院做去眼袋手术多少钱




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