赣州肛肠科医生咨询华西健客

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原标题: 赣州肛肠科医生咨询百姓健康

In the annals of anti-monopoly case law, Chinese rice noodle and tableware cartels do not rank up there with the Standard Oil trust, the petroleum cartel that was famously prosecuted in 1911 under the US Sherman Antitrust Act.在反垄断判例法记录中,中国的米粉和餐具消毒卡特尔不可与标准石油(Standard Oil)托拉斯同日而语。1911年,美国法院根据《谢尔曼反托拉斯法》(Sherman Antitrust Act)裁定标准石油托拉斯为非法石油垄断组织,这是一个著名的判例。But in time these two much lesser known cartels, targeted by Beijing regulators shortly after the implementation of China’s 2010 Anti-Monopoly Law, may become famous in their own right. They were among the first cases in an enforcement campaign that has since ensnared the likes of Mercedes-Benz and Qualcomm. It could also soon have implications for multinationals’ ability to safeguard intellectual property in the world’s most coveted market.然而,中国这两个鲜为人知的卡特尔或许也会因为其自身的原因扬名世界——2010年,在中国《反垄断法》(Anti-Monopoly Law)实施一年多后,它们便被北京方面的监管部门盯上了。它们是反垄断执法行动中首批被调查的对象,这之后梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)和高通(Qualcomm)之类的公司相继中。这场执法行动很快还可能威胁跨国企业在中国市场上保护自身知识产权的能力,而中国是全世界最令人垂涎的市场。In both instances, the National Development and Reform Commission imposed small penalties for price collusion on more than a dozen rice noodle makers and service providers that wash, sterilise and wrap tableware in plastic for restaurants. Stephen Harris, a competition attorney with Winston amp; Strawn in Washington DC, says both cases were a signal to Chinese companies by NDRC that “new laws exist and there’s a cop on the beat”.在两个案例中,中国的国家发改委(National Development and Reform Commission)对十多家米粉制造商以及7家为餐馆提供套装消毒餐具的餐具消毒企业处以小额罚款,原因是这些企业串通涨价。华盛顿特区温斯顿-斯特朗律师事务所(Winston amp; Strawn)的反垄断律师斯蒂芬#8226;哈里斯(Stephen Harris)称,两起案件都是发改委向中国企业发出的警告——“新法律已经实施,警察在盯着呢”。The NDRC’s investigations into allegedly anti-competitive behaviour by domestic firms culminated with an Rmb200m (.2m) fine for China’s largest liquor maker, Wuliangye, two years ago. But it takes rather more money to get the attention of multinationals, and the NDRC achieved just that in 2013 with the first in a series of investigations against foreign manufacturers of milk powder, auto parts, premium cars and semiconductors.发改委对中国本土企业所谓反竞争行为的调查,以两年前中国最大白酒制造商五粮液(Wuliangye)被处以2亿元人民币(合3220万美元)罚款达到巅峰。但是,要引起跨国企业的注意,还得开出更大的罚单。2013年,这个目的达到了——发改委开启了针对外国制造商的第一起调查,随后的一系列反垄断调查席卷了奶粉、汽车零部件、豪华车以及半导体领域的外国制造商。Foreign firms accused of anti-competitive behaviour by the NDRC have generally been hit with much higher fines than their domestic counterparts. Qualcomm agreed to pay a Rmb6.1bn penalty in February, while Mercedes and Audi were fined Rmb350m and Rmb250m respectively.被发改委指控存在反竞争行为的那些外国公司最后收到的罚单金额,一般比被罚的国内企业高得多。今年2月,高通同意付61亿元人民币的罚款,而奔驰和奥迪(Audi)则被分别处以3.5亿和2.5亿元人民币的罚款。In all three instances, the fact the penalties could have been much worse has blunted some of the criticism that the NDRC has been deliberately targeting foreign companies — a charge the regulator has consistently denied.有人批评发改委在故意拿外国企业开刀,而在以上3个案例中,罚款金额原本都可能更高,这一事实缓和了部分这样的批评。发改委对这一批评始终予以否认。Qualcomm’s penalty could have required much more costly changes to its business model. The San Diego company’s shares actually rose on the news. Mercedes and Audi, meanwhile, were penalised for infractions in just one province each. In theory, they could have had to pay much more had NDRC’s investigators ferreted out wrongdoing in all of China’s 32 provinces, autonomous regions and directly administered municipalities.对高通的处罚原本可能包括要求其改变商业模式,那样的话代价要高昂得多。被罚的消息公布后,这家总部位于美国圣地亚哥的公司的股价事实上还上涨了。与此同时,奔驰和奥迪受到的处罚分别针对它们各自在仅一个省份的不法行为。理论上讲,如果发改委查出它们在中国内地全部的32个省、自治区和直辖市的不法行为,它们被处以的罚款可能会高得多。That suggests the NDRC’s investigations of multi#173;nationals, like the ones into domestic firms before them, were to a large degree motivated by the desire to send a wake-up call to the foreign investment community rather than secure maximum fines.这意味着,发改委对跨国企业的调查,很大程度上是出于想要敲打一下外企,而非想要获得尽可能高的罚金,正如发改委之前对国内企业的调查一样。So what next now that the NDRC has so effectively got its intended message across? Only one previously disclosed investigation has yet to be resolved — that involving Microsoft and the State Administration of Industry and Commerce, which also polices aspects of the 2010 Anti#173;Monopoly Law.既然发改委已经颇有成效地传达了其意图,那么接下来会发生什么?目前只有一个之前披露过的调查尚未有结果——该调查涉及微软(Microsoft)和中国国家工商行政管理总局(State Administration of Industry and Commerce,简称工商总局),后者也是反垄断执法机构。Mr Harris and his colleagues at Winston amp; Strawn — who represent both Qualcomm and Microsoft but said they could not comment on either case — are warning multinationals about a new set of SAIC guidelines that could force them to share intellectual property with their Chinese competitors. The rules, designed to “prohibit abuse of intellectual property rights to eliminate or restrict competition”, were promulgated early last month and take effect on August 1. Just as western regulators have occasionally forced operators of telecoms networks and electricity grids to share their “essential facilities” with competitors, the SAIC could compel “dominant” companies to share intellectual property when it constitutes “an essential facility of manufacturing and business operations”.温斯顿-斯特朗律师事务所的哈里斯及其同事们同时代理高通和微软,但是他们表示两起案件均无法置评。他们警告跨国企业称,中国工商总局的新一套指导方针可能会强迫它们将知识产权共享给中国竞争对手。《关于禁止滥用知识产权排除、限制竞争行为的规定》于上个月公布,将于8月1日生效。就像西方监管部门偶尔迫使电信网络和电力网络运营商与竞争者共享其“关键设施”一样,当这些知识产权构成“制造和商业运营的关键设施”时,中国工商总局可能会迫使“占主导地位的”企业把知识产权分享出来。If it were to do so, the SAIC would be following the EU in applying the essential facilities doctrine to intellectual property. But the EU has only forced companies to share intellectual property in a very small number of exceptional circumstances, while the US has refused to do so.若果真如此,中国工商总局将步欧盟(EU)后尘,将关键设施理论应用到知识产权上。但是,欧盟只是在极少数特殊情况下强迫企业共享知识产权,而美国则拒绝这么做。In a rare public comment on the new rules, one SAIC official has said the regulator will be “cautious” in applying them. For multinationals wary of being forced to transfer technology in China, the uncertainty is a worrying but useful reminder that the country’s anti-monopoly law is very much a work in progress. Very few if any of them took note of the implications for their own industries of the NDRC’s prosecutions of the domestic rice noodle and tableware cartels. It is a mistake that they should not make twice.在就新规发表的一次罕见公开中,中国工商总局一名官员称该部门将“谨慎”应用新规。对于担心在中国被强迫转让技术的跨国企业而言,这种不确定性是个令人担忧、也很有用的提醒,即中国的反垄断法很大程度上还是半成品。发改委起诉国内米粉和餐具消毒卡特尔的时候,跨国企业中很少(如果有的话)有哪家注意到了此事对它们自己所在行业的影响。这个错误它们不应再犯第二次。 /201505/376507

Toyota has unveiled its vision of a “hydrogen society” at an event in Germany, as the scandal over diesel emissions engulfs Volkswagen, its biggest global rival.日本汽车制造商丰田(Toyota)在德国的一次活动中披露了其建设“氢社会”的愿景。丰田在全球市场的最大竞争对手大众汽车(Volkswagen)正笼罩在柴油车尾气造假丑闻的阴影中。The Japanese carmaker — the world’s biggest by 2014 sales — on Thursday invited the world’s media to Hamburg for the European launch of its Mirai fuel-cell powered vehicle.周四,丰田邀请全球媒体赴汉堡见其在欧洲推出燃料电池汽车Mirai的活动。以2014年销量计,丰田是全球最大的汽车制造商。This 60,000 hydrogen-powered saloon forms a key part of the plans that Toyota announced this week to cut 90 per cent of its cars’ carbon dioxide emissions between 2010 and 2050.这款售价6万英镑的氢动力轿车是丰田本周宣布的计划的关键一环。丰田计划在2010年至2050年间,将旗下汽车的碳排放削减90%。Yoshikazu Tanaka, chief engineer of the Mirai — which means “future” in Japanese — said the vehicle offered “a pathway to a better, safer and cleaner future”.Mirai首席工程师田中良和(Yoshikazu Tanaka)表示,这款汽车提供了“一条通向更美好、更安全、更清洁未来的道路”。Mirai在日语中的意思是“未来”。Carmakers worldwide have been looking afresh at how to reduce vehicle emissions in the wake of the VW test-manipulation scandal. Hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles such as the Mirai are seen by some as an improvement on pure electric cars, as they offer range and refuelling time that is competitive with petrol and diesel models. Toyota’s fuel cell vehicle can travel 550km on its two hydrogen tanks, and can refuel in as little as three minutes.在大众尾气检测作弊丑闻曝光后,全球汽车制造商正重新关注如何减少汽车尾气排放。Mirai等氢燃料电池汽车被一些人视为对纯电动汽车的改进,因为氢动力汽车的续航里程和补充燃料所费时间可与汽油车和柴油车媲美。丰田的这款燃料电池汽车拥有两个氢燃料箱,可续航550公里,补充燃料最短仅需3分钟。Toyota — along with Hyundai, maker of the ix35 hydrogen car — has been at the forefront of the nascent technology, having begun research on the project in the early 1990s.丰田与ix35氢动力汽车的制造商现代(Hyundai)一直处于这一新兴技术的前沿,从上世纪90年代初就开始研究该项目了。Toyota says the zero-emission Mirai can achieve an overall CO2 reduction — including factory production — of between 50 per cent and 70 per cent versus conventional petrol and diesel models. Its CO2 reduction depends on whether the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, such as wind and solar, as is the case at four refuelling stations in Hamburg.丰田表示,与传统汽、柴油车型相比,零排放的Mirai可实现二氧化碳总排放(包括工厂生产时的排放)减少50%至70%。具体的碳减排量取决于氢燃料是否源自可再生能源,例如风能和太阳能,就像汉堡的4个加氢站一样。Toyota will begin by offering Mirai models to environmentally conscious companies, business leaders and public bodies in Germany, Denmark and the UK. Early customers include Transport for London.丰田首先将面向德国、丹麦和英国的具备环保意识的企业、商界领袖及公共机构销售Mirai汽车。初期客户包括伦敦交通局(Transport for London)。It says its aim is to almost eliminate the internal combustion engine from its line-up by the middle of this century.丰田表示,公司的目标是到本世纪中叶基本上不再生产内燃机汽车。“There will be almost no gasoline and diesel cars as we approach 2050,” said Kiyotaka Ise, a senior managing officer at Toyota, speaking in Tokyo on Wednesday.“到2050年,我们将基本上不再生产汽油车和柴油车,”丰田高管伊势清贵(Kiyotaka Ise)周三在东京发表讲话时表示。To meet that target, it plans to sell more than 30,000 hydrogen-powered vehicles annually worldwide by about 2020, 10 times its sales target for 2017.为了实现这个目标,丰田计划到2020年左右时,每年在全球销售逾3万辆氢动力汽车,是2017年销售目标的10倍。 /201510/404638

SAN FRANCISCO — Google likes its ambitions sky high. This time, it has gone a little further.旧金山——谷歌(Google)向来不缺少凌云壮志。而这一次,它又有了更高的目标。The Internet giant, along with Fidelity, has invested billion in SpaceX, the private rocketry company founded by Elon Musk. The move will help Google achieve its aim of bringing satellite Internet to remote corners of the world while giving SpaceX a round of fresh capital for its founder to pursue dreams of going to Mars.这家互联网巨头与Fidelity一道,为埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)创办的私营火箭公司SpaceX投资了10亿美元。此举有助于谷歌实现让世界上的偏远角落享有卫星互联网务的目标,同时也让SpaceX获得了新一轮的注资,使它的创始人可以继续追寻登上火星的梦想。In a statement on its website, SpaceX said the money would be used “to support continued innovation in the areas of space transport, reusability and satellite manufacturing.”SpaceX在其网站上发表声明称,这笔资金将会用于“持航天运输、重复利用和卫星制造领域的持续创新”。A Google spokesman said Don Harrison, Google’s vice president for corporate development, would join the board of SpaceX. In a statement, Mr. Harrison said: “Space-based applications, like imaging satellites, can help people more easily access important information, so we’re excited to support SpaceX’s growth as it develops new launch technologies.”谷歌的一名发言人说,谷歌的企业发展副总裁唐·哈里森(Don Harrison)将加入SpaceX的董事会。哈里森在一份声明中说:“太空技术的实际应用,比如成像卫星,可以帮助人们更加轻松地获取重要信息,因此能在SpaceX开发新的发射技术时,为它的成长提供持,我们感到十分激动。”In addition to an interest in a decent payoff on its investment, Google may be seeking to put itself into orbit. Last year, Google bought Skybox Imaging, a maker of small, high-resolution imaging satellites, for about 0 million. Google aly offers satellite imagery in its Google Earth product, but must purchase these images from multiple sources, often receiving what company executives have said is uneven image quality.除了可观的投资回报,谷歌可能还在寻求把自己的卫星送入轨道。去年,谷歌以大约5亿美元(约合30亿元人民币)的价格收购了Skybox Imaging,它是一家小型高分辨率成像卫星的制造商。谷歌已经在谷歌地球(Google Earth)产品中提供了卫星图像,但必须从不同来源购买这些图像,公司高管说,这些图像质量常常参差不齐。Google may also be interested in developing satellites with other kinds of sensors, like infrared detectors that show the health of crops, or lasers that can pierce forest canopies to show underlying terrain.谷歌可能还想要开发带有其他感应装置的卫星,比如展示庄稼健康状况的红外探测器,或是能够穿透森林覆盖展示地形的激光设备。The company has also shown interest in transforming the Internet connectivity business with high-altitude balloons that people can use to get online from remote locations. That same transmission technology could conceivably be put on satellites as well. Google is in competition with Facebook, which is also interested in advanced means of connectivity and which last year purchased a drone company potentially capable of carrying Internet devices.谷歌还表现出了用高空气球为互联网连接带来变革的愿望。这种高空气球可以让地处偏远的人接入互联网。可以想见,同样的传输技术能够用在卫星上。谷歌正在与Facebook展开竞争,后者也对先进的网络连接手段萌生了兴趣,并于去年收购了一家无人机公司,这种无人机有望搭载互联网设备。Google and Fidelity will collectively own 10 percent of SpaceX because of the investment.做出这笔投资后,谷歌和Fidelity将共同拥有SpaceX公司10%的股份。The Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin have also expressed personal interest in space exploration. Early in the company’s history it offered employee lectures on building so-called space elevators that could theoretically launch objects off Earth more cheaply than rockets could.谷歌创始人拉里·佩奇(Larry Page)和谢尔盖·布林(Sergey Brin)也曾表达过对于太空探索的个人兴趣。谷歌公司在创办初期,曾对员工做过关于制造所谓的“太空电梯”的讲座。理论上,这种装置能以低于火箭的成本,把物体从地球发射出去。 /201501/355980A Chinese biotechnological company announced on Sunday it has developed the world#39;s first 3D blood vessel bio-printer, which makes it possible to produce personalized functional organs.本周日,中国的一家生物技术公司宣布,它已经研发出了世界上第一台3D血管生物打印机,这使得制造个体功能器官成为可能。Sichuan Revotek Co., Ltd. based in Chengdu, capital of southwest China#39;s Sichuan Province, said the significant breakthrough has been achieved through its self-developed stem cell bio-ink technology, 3D bio-printer and cloud computing platform.位于中国西南部四川省省会成都的四川Revotek公司称,通过公司自己研发的干细胞生物连接技术、3D生物打印机和云计算平台,3D血管生物打印机这一具有划时代的意义的技术突破已经完成。;The creative breakthrough in the 3D blood vessel bio-printing means we have mastered the stem cell-based 3D bio-printing technology,; said Yang Keng, chairman of Sichuan Languang Development Co., Ltd. Revotek is a subsidiary of Sichuan Languang.四川蓝光发展公司主席杨铿说,“这一具有创新性的3D血管印刷机的发明,意味着我们已经掌握了干细胞为基础的3D生物打印技术”。Revotek是四川蓝光集团的子公司。Blood vessels that transport nutrients to organs are indispensable elements when creating any organs, according to James Kang, an expert who led the program.据领导该项目的专家James Kang说,当创造任何器官的时候,向各器官运送营养物质的血管是必不可少的。Kang#39;s team has created a novel type of bio-ink - ;Biosynsphere;, whose primary goal is the personalized stem cell bio-printing to pave the way for organ regeneration.康的研发团队已经创造了一个新的生物链接模式- Biosynsphere,这一链接模式的首要目标是个体干细胞生物打印,以便器官再生。;We have successfully realized the blood vessel regeneration by relying on the 3D bio-printer, the biosynsphere technology and the data model based on cloud computing,; he said.他说,“我们已经成功地通过依赖3D打印机,biosynsphere技术和云计算基础上的数据模型实现了血管再生。”The company said it is willing to absorb more talent and seek international cooperation for the application of the achievements.公司很愿意吸收更多的人才并且寻求国际公司来应用这一成就。 /201510/406580

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