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EU Boosts Humanitarian Aid to Pakistan欧盟增加对巴基斯坦人道援助 The European Union has pledged millions of dollars in new humanitarian assistance for Pakistanis displaced by fighting between government troops and the Taliban insurgency in the Asian nation. The EU has also raised chances of closer trade ties during its first summit with Pakistan.欧盟已经承诺再次为巴基斯坦提供几百万美元的人道援助资金,帮助在巴基斯坦政府军和塔利班武装分子的战斗中流离失所的巴基斯坦人。欧盟在与巴基斯坦的第一次首脑会议中还提出双方有进行更紧密贸易的机会。During the talks in Brussels, European Union officials offered both moral and financial support to Pakistan's president Asif Ali Zardari. European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso said the EU has decided to earmark nearly million in new humanitarian aid for people displaced by the conflict in Pakistan's northwestern Swat valley and other areas where the government is fighting a fierce Taliban insurgency.欧洲联盟官员在布鲁塞尔的会谈中,对巴基斯坦总统扎尔达里提供了道义和资金的双重持。欧盟委员会主席巴罗佐说,欧盟已决定再次拨出近9000万美元的人道援助资金,帮助在巴基斯坦西北部的斯瓦特河谷等地区政府军打击猖獗的塔利班武装分子等战斗中流离失所的平民。"I welcome President Zadari's determination to confront militants who have been challenging the authority of the democratically elected government in the northwest frontier province," said Jose Manuel Barroso. "Of course we are aware of the civilian population, of a large number of people in the area in and around the Swat Valley."他说:“我赞同扎尔达里总统对抗武装分子的决心,这些武装分子挑战西北省边境民选政府的权威。当然我们也注意到在斯瓦特河谷及周边地区有很多平民。”Overall, Barroso said, the EU has decided to boost its humanitarian emergency funding to Pakistan more than tenfold, to about 0 million.巴罗佐说,欧盟已决定把应对巴基斯坦人道紧急需求的资金总额提高到十倍以上,达到约1亿美元。The summit is the first ever between the EU and Pakistan and it was marked by warm words on both sides. President Zardari was quick to thank the 27-member organization for its financial assistance.这次是欧盟与巴基斯坦之间有史以来的第一次首脑会议,特点是对话双方都很热情友好。扎尔达里总统立即对这有27个成员国的组织提供的资金援助表示感谢。"I think all steps have been positive," said Asif Ali Zardari. "The fact that democracy has been acknowledged and the engagement of all the countries of the world with Pakistan and a democratic Pakistan is a relief, a positive step and an assurance that no dictator will ever be welcomed in the halls of the EU."他说:“我认为所有步骤都是积极的。令人欣慰的事实是巴基斯坦的民主已经得到承认、以及世界各国在与民主的巴基斯坦交往,这也是积极的步骤,同时确定的是欧盟会场是不欢迎任何独裁者的。”But Mr. Zardari also pushed for greater access to European markets, saying that what he wanted was trade, not aid.但是扎尔达里也推动巴基斯坦进一步打入欧洲市场,他说他想要的是贸易而不是援助。The EU is aly among Pakistan's biggest trading partners. And Mr. Barroso held out hope that commercial exchanges could be boosted. He said the EU had outlined ways to increase trade between the two sides and suggested they might hold free trade talks at some point in the future.欧盟已经是巴基斯坦最大的贸易伙伴之一。巴罗佐希望商业交流可以促进经济。他说欧盟概述了如何增加双边贸易得途径,并建议他们可以在未来的某一时间举行自由贸易会谈。06/74982

Climate and the solar cycle气候和太阳圈Chilling out in the winter sun在冬日的阳光中发冷Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层的变化能引发讨人厌的寒流THOSE unconvinced;and those seeking to unconvince others;of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis. A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case. In itself, it does not, for the heat (or, rather, the cold) in question is being redistributed, not retained. But it does point to two other lessons about climate change: that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by; and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.不相信全球变暖是人为因素造成的和那些企图让别人不相信的人常常会将太阳的易变表现作为假设进行选择。一项新的研究正在致力于研究欧洲的严冬和日渐变暖的北极圈与太阳的变化活动可能的关联,似乎是为了明此观点。实则不然,因为受人质疑的太阳热能(或者说冷能)一直在重新分布,而不是保持不变的。但这项研究却让人们从气候变化中学到了其他两点:影响因子的数据有时候很难得到;气候的电脑模型能够模拟出现在的气候状况,让人印象深刻。The sunrsquo;s activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy. The stratosphere, the part of the Earthrsquo;s atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to be particularly sensitive to the cycle.太阳的活动周期是11年,在此周期内太阳散发出的紫外线总量的变化比太阳能总量的变化要大的多。吸收大部分紫外线的平流层?;;地球大气圈的一部分,在此周期内可能会变得异常敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience, Sarah Ineson of Britainrsquo;s Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Officersquo;s new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.刚刚在《自然-地球科学》杂志上发表的一篇论文中,英国气象办公室的沙哈.伊内森和她的同事用该气象办公室公认的新型气候改进模型,对其在冬天纪录的高紫外线和低紫外线数据进行比较,这些数据是由一架名叫SORCE的卫星收集太阳散发的紫外线量获得的。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler, because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank. That changed the way the atmosphere circulated, and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe. These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters;which occurred at a time of low solar activity. The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada. In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.伊内森士发现热带地区平流层中的紫外线含量低,因而就更凉爽,因为那里没有足够的紫外线可以吸收,也就意味着热带地区平流层的气温和极地地区平流层的气温差异很大。这种情况改变了大气环流的方式。冬天,当大气环流变化散布到低一点的大气中时,自北极圈表层而来的冷空气很容易就能传播到南方,让北欧的大部分国家处于冰冻之中。这些状况和过去的两次发生在欧洲的严冬很相似;;那两次严冬都发生在太阳活动频率很低的时候。而北极圈本身,无论是作为模型还是实际情况,都比平常要温暖,加拿大部分地区也是如此。临近俄罗斯和美国的北欧则相反,显得比平时更冰冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before? To some extent it had. Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns. That models of todayrsquo;s climate had not was, in part, because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun. It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.为什么我们之前没有看出这种日光影响呢?某种程度上,我们看到过。更早以前,对17、18世纪时太阳活动持续不活跃的那段时期所做的模型也体现了同样的结构。但如今的气候模型却没有体现出来。部分原因是因为对太阳圈内紫外线变化量的估计比直接从SORCE中得来的要低的多。SORCE观察太阳所得出的数据,比其他的卫星更为精准。那么用更为接近实际的数据做模型或许更为可靠。This does not mean the question is settled. Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the sunrsquo;s variability, and if they were revised the link might go away. There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too. Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.这并不意味着问题解决了。一些科学家怀疑SORCE的数据可能夸大了太阳的变化性,如果数据一经修改,两者的关联可能也不复存在了。还有其他一些理论也正寻求解释最近冷冬的原因。研究员们说,他们想通过这些理论模型来改进预测未来冷冬的准确性,但看来并不那么容易。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit. Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered, compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works. This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.尽管全球变暖让人们将模型视为未来的预言者,这却不是模型的最大作用。它们还有更大的作用,它们能观察当一个变量改变时(如紫外线)会发生什么,并与数据作比较,从而洞察出气候变化的机制。这项新的研究为这种方法所能取得的结果提供了好的例子。stratospheric adj. 同温层的, 平流层的alternative adj. 非此即彼的; 供选择的stratosphere n.同温层putatively adv. 推定地circulate v. 循环exaggerate v. 夸张, 夸大mechanism n. 机械201111/162709

Schumpeter熊彼特专栏Green growth绿色增长Some emerging-world companies are combining growth with greenery一些发展中国家的企业将环保事业与利润增长相结合Sep 17th 2011 | from the print editionTHE enrichment of previously poor countries is the most inspiring development of our time. It is also worrying. The environment is aly under strain. What will happen when the global population rises from 7 billion today to 9.3 billion in 2050, as demographers expect, and a growing proportion of these people can afford goods that were once reserved for the elite? Can the planet support so much economic activity?我们身处的这个时代最激动人心的进步乃是前贫穷国家的经济发展。而这令人忧虑。环境早已不堪重负。当全球总人口从今天的70亿上升至人口统计家所预估的2050年的93亿,并且越来越多的人有钱购置一度为上流人士储备的商品之时,世界会成何样呢?地球能够承担如此繁重的经济活动吗?Many policymakers adopt a top-down and Western-centric approach to such planetary problems. They discuss ambitious regulations in global forums, or look to giant multinationals and well-heeled NGOs to set an example. But since most people live in the emerging world, it makes sense to look at what successful companies there are doing to make growth more sustainable.许多决策者们建议采纳一个自上而下并以西方为中心的方法来解决此类问题。他们在全球论坛中雄心勃勃地探讨监管制度,或指望大型跨国公司和富有的非政府组织来树立典范。但鉴于大多数人生活在发展中国家,故而有必要了解这些国家的成功企业为促进可持续增长而做了些什么。201109/154232

Economic downturn worst in '60 years' 英财相称英国经济遭遇六十年来最低迷期Alistair Darling has warned that Britain's economic downturn will be the worst in 60 years. Alistair Darling says Britain is facing its worst economic crisis since the 1940s. The chancellor is warning the current downturn will hit harder and last longer than we expect. It's the government's grimmest assessment to date of the situation facing the British economy. Mr. Darling says conditions here and abroad are now arguably the worst they’ve been for 60 years. In an interview with the Guardian newspaper, he also admitted ministers had failed to explain the problem to voters, and that they were understandably angry with Labors’ handling of the situation. His comments are likely to prove controversial. They are much more negative than those expressed publicly by Gordon Brown. However, Mr. Darling's remarks come after somewhat bad economic news. House prices are falling at their fastest rate in 18 years, leading to fears of a wave of repossessions in the upcoming months. Mortgage lending has slowed dramatically due to the credit crunch. And evidence suggests that Britain could be poised to go into a recession in the near future. The most recent GDP figures show no economic growth in the second quarter of the year, while building firms and retailers have laid off thousands of staff in recent weeks. Amid fears, things will deteriorate even further.参考中文翻译:Alistair Darling提出警告,英国经济遭遇60年来最低迷期。Alistair Darling说,英国经济正面临上世纪40年代以来最严峻的情况。该英国大臣提出警告,目前的经济低迷将会比我们预期的更严重,持续时间更长。这是政府对当前英国经济形势的严酷评估。Mr. Darling 说,目前国内外的形势都无可辩驳的是60年来最糟糕的状况。在英国卫报的采访中,他同样承认,政府官员没有及时成功的对选民作出解释,他们对工党的处理方式不满,这可以理解。但是他的言论却引发争议。他们比Gordon Brown在公开场合所表达的还要消极。然而,Mr. Darling的来自一些列负面经济消息之后。房价以18年来的最快速度下滑,引发了对未来几个月能否恢复的恐慌。由于信用危机,抵押贷款急剧下降。有据表明,英国不久就将进入萧条期。最近的GDP统计数据表明,今年第二季度,英国的经济没有任何增长,房地产公司和零售商在最近的几周裁员数千人。在极度恐慌中,形势会进一步恶化。200811/57192

Meeting in emergency session Saturday, the 15-member Peace and Security Council expressed concern at ongoing developments in Tunisia, and urged an end to all acts of violence. 非盟和平与安全理事会15个成员国的代表星期六举行紧急会议,对突尼斯目前的事态发展表示关注,并敦促结束一切暴力行为。AU Peace and Security Director el-Ghassim Wane says the Council indicated its satisfaction with news that Tunisia's Constitutional Court had named the national assembly speaker as interim leader pending elections.理事会主席韦恩说,安理会对突尼斯宪法法院任命国会议长在选举前担任国家临时领导人的决定表示满意。"Yesterday the prime minister announced he was taking charge of the situation on the basis of Article 56," said Wane. "We just learned that the Constitutional Court has decided that they should rather follow Article 57, and we believe, at least the interpretation of counsel is that so far the Tunisians have been acting within the framework of their constitution."他说:“突尼斯总理昨天宣布,根据宪法第56条,他接管了领导责任,处理当前局势。我们刚刚得知,宪法法院决定他们要遵循宪法第57条。我们相信,至少法律顾问的理解是,突尼斯人至今为止是在宪法的框架内行事。”In cases where a leader is ousted without elections, the Peace and Security Council often suspends the country's AU membership. But Wane said in this case, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's ouster was considered legitimate, and no action would be taken.在一个国家的领导人未经选举就被罢免的情况下,和平与安全理事会一般会暂停这个国家的非盟成员国身份。但是,韦恩说,就突尼斯的情况而言,推翻本·阿里总统被认为是合法的,所以不需要采取任何行动。"No effect, in the sense that the transition was done in accordance with the constitution," added Wane. "The speaker of the national assembly was designated to lead the transition, and that is in line with the relevant provisions of the constitution of Tunisia."他说:“目前的过渡是符合宪法规定的,所以从这个意义上而言,不会产生任何影响。突尼斯国会议长被指定为过渡期的领导人,这与突尼斯宪法的有关条款是一致的。”201101/123745


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