2017年10月24日 15:28:20|来源:国际在线|编辑:光明晚报
As anyone whos had a toddler knows, theyre incredibly demanding creatures. Armed with an insatiable desire to eat and/or destroy just about everything in their path, these walking embodiments of unchecked ego can be a handful. Especially when they have colds. Theres nothing quite as trying as a toddler with a head cold, stuffed up nose, and ever present rivers of mucus flowing from each nostril.家里有刚学会走路的小孩子都知道他们需求量很大。贪求无厌地要吃东西或是破坏面前的任何物品,这些不受管束的“小东西”非常难控制。特别的当他们感冒的时候。当蹒跚走路的小孩患上伤风,鼻子不通,两个鼻孔就像河流一样流出粘液。Because most toddlers cant blow their own noses, the constant wiping and suctioning can be a chore. But runny noses serve a useful purpose. When we catch a cold, the virus stimulates membranes in the nose to produce clear mucus. When mucus streams out the nostrils or is propelled by a forceful blow, it carries germs from the nose and sinuses. When the bodys immune system starts to fight the cold virus, it turns the mucus white or yellow, which is the bodys way of letting you know its been infected.因为大多数小孩都不能自己擤鼻涕,不断地擦拭和吸入可是件苦差事。但是流鼻涕也是有益处的。当我们感冒的时候,鼻子里的病毒刺激细胞膜产生清水。粘液流出鼻孔或是通过外力流出的同时会带出鼻子和鼻窦里的病菌。身体的免疫系统与感冒病毒抗击时,粘液呈黄色或白色,这就是你被病毒感染身体表现出的征兆。Unfortunately, theres no quick and easy way to dry up a toddlers runny nose. Although anti-histamines may stop the drainage, they can also clog up the nose and keep the mucus from draining away germs.可惜现在还没有一种简单快速的方法解决小孩流鼻涕。尽管抗组胺能够阻止流鼻水,但也可能阻塞鼻子,细菌粘液便无法排出。A runny nose can become a sign of a more serious infection such as sinusitis, an upper respiratory infection. But nasal discharge can continue for several days and even weeks without necessarily indicating sinusitis. Its best to let a doctor diagnose a respiratory infection rather than self-administer antibiotics on a hunch. Overusing antibiotics can create resistant strains of germs, which then require even stronger and more expensive antibiotics. So in the case of a long-running nose, its best to let each nose run its course.流鼻涕也可能是更严重的感染的迹象,如鼻窦炎,上呼吸道感染。但是,鼻涕持续数天甚至数周,就不一定是鼻窦炎。最好是求医诊断而不要凭预感自己给药抗生素之类的。过度使用抗生素会增强细菌的抵抗力,那样会导致患者需要药性更强,价格更贵的抗生素来医治。因此在长期流鼻涕的情况下,最好不管它。 /201303/229662

If an airplanes passengers start yawning and chewing gum, they might not be over-tired chewing-gum executives—they might be trying to keep their ears from popping.When an airplane changes altitude, air pressure changes often make peoples ears go pop, and yawning or chewing can help. If you saw this same thing on a train however, you might wonder what was up. Trains arent supposed to change altitude rapidly, are they? Why would your ears go pop on a train? The answer is tunnels, and the air inside them.如果飞机上的乘客开始打哈欠,嚼口香糖,他们也许并不是因为疲惫不堪而嚼口香糖,或许是为了防止高空耳鸣。当飞机改变飞行纬度,气压会发生改变,使乘客的耳朵发生耳鸣。然而当你在火车上遇见这样的事,你会觉得奇怪,不知道发生了什么事。火车一般不会突然改变纬度,是吗?那为什么在火车上也会发生耳鸣?就在隧道,以及隧道里的空气。 Of course theres air outside the tunnel too, but very different things happen when a train moves through the closed-in air of a tunnel instead of the usual, open air. Traveling across an open plain, a train simply pushes the air aside to allow its passage. In a tunnel, things arent so easy. When a train enters a tunnel, it compresses the air in front of it like a piston. Unlike outside air, air in a tunnel cant be simply pushed aside—the tunnel walls are in the way.当然隧道外也有空气。然而,当火车不在开阔的天地里驰骋,而是要穿过封闭的隧道时,情形则大不相同。在广阔的平原上行驶时,火车只是简单地排开空气,然后驶过。在隧道内将空气排开并是不那么容易。火车进入隧道会压缩车身前方的空气,就像活塞一样。与外面不同的是,隧道内的空气不能被推到两边——因为有隧道墙壁挡道。 Some of the air is pushed forward, all the way down to the tunnels other end, but most of it rushes through the narrow space between the train and the tunnel walls, to fill in the area behind the train. Being forced into this narrow space makes the air rush faster, exactly as water speeds up at the base of a funnel. In fact, this tunnel air can rush backward much faster than the trains forward speed! This fast moving air creates a kind of suction on the train, lowering the air pressure inside and making your ears go pop.部分空气从隧道一端直接被推到另一端,但大多数空气会冲过火车与隧道墙壁之间的狭小缝隙,来填补车后的空间。空气被强制压缩到狭窄的空间,会使空气运动更加剧烈,正如水在漏斗里会加速下流一样。实际上,隧道里的空气向后冲撞的速度比火车前行的速度更快。这样快速的空气流动会吸住车身,从而减小车内的气压,使乘客产生耳鸣。原文译文属!201207/189064

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