时间:2017年12月15日 10:40:52

Migrants streaming into Europe have braved fierce storms, navigated turbulent waters, faced down police batons, water cannons and tear gas in Hungary, and stepped through fields in Croatia strewn with land mines.不断涌入欧洲的难民要承受猛烈的暴风雨,渡过湍急的海域,抵挡匈牙利警察的警棒、水炮和催泪弹,通过克罗地亚布满地雷的区域。Now some of the asylum seekers headed toward Western and Central Europe face another worry: toxic mushrooms.现在,有些前往西欧和中欧的难民还面临着另一个顾虑:毒蘑菇。Hanover Medical School, an academic hospital in north-central Germany, warned this week that about 30 migrants had been sickened — some of them severely — after eating mushrooms commonly called death caps.汉诺威医学院(Hanover Medical School)是德国中北部的一个学术医院。本周,该医学院发出警告说,约有30名难民在食用一种俗称死亡帽(death cap)的蘑菇后中毒,其中一些情况严重。The hospital made and distributed posters in Arabic, Kurdish and other languages cautioning migrants to avoid the fungus, which is native to Europe and can cause fatal liver and kidney damage. On Thursday, similar cases of mushroom poisoning were reported in Münster, about 110 miles west of Hanover. A dozen patients remained hospitalized on Thursday, three in critical condition, Dr. Michael P. Manns, chairman of the department of gastroenterology, hepatology and endocrinology at Hanover Medical School, said in an email.这家医院用阿拉伯语和库尔德语等语言制作和发放传单,警告难民不要食用这种蘑菇。这种欧洲土产的蘑菇会对肝脏和肾脏造成致命损伤。周四(9月17日),类似的蘑菇中毒病例也出现在汉诺威以西约110英里的明斯特(Münster)。汉诺威医学院的肠胃病、肝脏病和内分泌科主任迈克尔·P·曼内斯(Michael P. Manns)在接受邮件采访时说,周四,仍有十几名中毒者在医院接受治疗,其中三名情况危急。Desperate migrants traveling for days with little to eat may have resorted to foraging for food as they made their way across Europe, where they hope to find asylum.难民们穿越欧洲寻找避难所时,可能旅行数日都几乎没有进食,所以会在绝望之中搜寻食物。“Do not collect mushrooms, if you are unfamiliar with edible growing mushrooms here,” the Hanover hospital warned in the poster. “A mushroom you regard from your homeland as a delicious edible mushroom could be deadly here although they look similar.”“如果你不熟悉本地正在生长的食用菌,一定不要采集,”汉诺威医院在传单中警告说,“有些蘑菇可能跟你在祖国看到的美味食用菌很像,但它们可能有剧毒。”The death cap (Amanita phalloides) resembles several varieties of edible mushrooms, making it particularly dangerous to people who are unfamiliar with the local terrain. The mushroom is found across much of Europe and in the ed States, California in particular. And right now it is in the middle of its three-month growing season in Europe.死亡帽(毒鹅膏菌)与好几种食用菌很像,所以对那些不熟悉当地情况的人来说,它尤为危险。这种蘑菇在欧洲和美国(尤其是加利福尼亚州)的很多地方都能找到。目前,它在欧洲正处于三个月的生长期。“Since this fungus has no repellent taste and the first symptoms occur only after several hours, the risk of getting sick form its consumption is extremely high,” the hospital said. It urged anyone who had eaten mushrooms and later experienced nausea, diarrhea or other symptoms to head to the nearest hospital.这家医院表示,“因为这种蘑菇没有难闻的味道,食用数小时后才会出现症状,所以它的中毒风险很大。”这家医院敦促所有食用蘑菇后出现呕吐或腹泻等症状的人前往最近的医院就医。The death cap is an invasive species in the ed States. It typically poisons a few people a year in California, often immigrants from Southeast Asia who confuse it with paddy straw mushrooms from their homelands, according to Anne Pringle, a biologist at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, who studies toxic mushrooms.死亡帽在美国属于外来物种。威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校(University of Wisconsin, Madison)专门研究有毒伞菌的生物学家安妮·普林格尔(Anne Pringle)说,每年加州一般会有数人中毒,大多是东南亚移民,他们把它跟老家的草菇弄混了。 /201509/400282

Moody people are often baffling to those of us with steadier emotions.喜怒无常的人常常令情绪稳定的人感到困惑。But scientists argue that changing moods – as seen in sulking teenagers, grumpy spouses, or bad-tempered parents - serve an important purpose.但科学家认为情绪多变——多见于阴郁的青少年,爱发牢骚的配偶,或者暴脾气的父母——其实有它的重要目的。Rather than being a weakness, they are nature#39;s way to of helping us adapt to an ever changing world. So when times are good and spirits are high, we take more risks at a time they are likely to be rewarded.这不是缺点,而是帮助我们适应瞬息万变的世界的自然方式。And when times are tough, sulking can help us conserve our energy.当万事顺意、志得意满时,我们更倾向于去冒风险,因为我们觉得自己很可能会得到回报。当时局艰难时,阴郁的情绪可以帮我们保存能量。To take a human example, a stock market trader who makes a successful deal becomes more optimistic about the outcome of his next transaction.举人类为例,股市交易者大赚一笔时,他对下一笔交易将会信心满满。He is then likely to take more risks – as he becomes more optimistic things will go in his or her favour.他会倾向于冒更多险,因为他乐观地期待事情会顺遂心意。The increase in risk taking allows him to make maximum gains at a time when risk taking is most likely to pay off.在风险投资回报率高时,冒更大风险让他可以获得最大化的利益。This holds true when a variety of different events have an underlying connection, the authors argue.作者论说,当多个不同事件之间存在潜在联系时,这个结果是成立的。To take an example from the natural world, the authors suggest an animal#39;s mood improves on finding a number of fruits in a tree.作者又举了一个自然界的例子,他指出动物在一株树上发现许多果实时情绪会改善。Rather than assessing each tree individually, this good mood helps the animal to look at the big picture – and optimistically make it think fruits are in abundance.情绪大好的动物不会挨个打量每株树,而是会乐观地认为这一片树的果实都很丰硕。This encourages the animal to climb up the neighbouring branch – where good conditions make it more likely that there will be a tasty fruit available.这会鼓励它爬上旁边那棵树,由于这片树生长环境良好,所以那颗树的枝头上很可能挂着一个好吃的果子。It may be increased rainfall or sunshine has caused fruit to become more abundant, the authors suggest.作者指出,也许是降雨和日照增多让果实更丰饶。#39;In this situation, it makes little sense to update expectations for each tree independently,#39; the authors write, and makes the animal expect #39;a general increase in reward and update expectations for all related trees accordingly.#39;作者写道:“在这种情况下,动物不会对每棵树都抱有不同的期望,而是会整体地期待‘周边的树都能有更多回报’。”Eran Eldar, of University College London said: #39;This effect of mood should be useful whenever different sources of reward are interconnected or possess an underlying momentum.英国伦敦大学学院伊然·艾尔达说:“当不同回报的来源相互间都有联系或拥有潜在动力,这种情绪效应将会很有用。#39;That may often be the case in the natural as well as in the modern world, as successes in acquiring skills, material resources, social status, and even mating partners may all affect one another.#39;“不仅在自然界,在现代社会,获取技能的成功与获得物质资源、社会地位,甚至和找对象都是环环相扣的。”When rewards are starting to thin out – for example if winter is coming – then a negative mood will result in an individual event, such as finding a fruit, being #39;downgraded#39;– allowing behaviour and expectations to be quickly adjusted downwards.当回报减少——比如冬天来临——消极的情绪就会致使动物对找到果实的期望降低,从而调整自己的行为。The authors suggest that this could lead to behaviours such as an animal deciding to save energy and hibernate instead of rushing around.作者说,这会导致动物决定节省体力或冬眠,而不是到处乱跑。 /201511/408130

Agriculture : In the Xia, lands belonged to the state and the people had to tribute.农业:夏朝实行土地国有制,臣民要向国家纳供。Since flooding had aly been under control and people could settle down, animal husbandry and agriculture developed further.自从洪水得到了控制,人民可以定居下来,畜牧业和农业生产得到了进一步的发展。Handicrafts: The handicraft industry also underwent fair development.手工业:夏朝的手工业已相当发达,开始使用青铜器。Bronze vessels came into use,which symbolized that Chinese history had finished its prim卜 five times and entered a civilized era.青铜器的出现标志着中国历史结束了野蛮时期,进入文明时期。 /201510/407411

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